Senior Seminar

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faulkebr
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175323
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Senior Seminar
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2012-10-03 19:25:47
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  1. Effects of poor peer relationships
    -longitudinal study (difficult to conduct)
    • 38,000 kids 8-11 at start
    • followed for several years
    • asked to indicate schoolmates that they would like as companions
    • kids who were not chosen tended to have a higher chance of of being juvenile delinquents at 14
    • dis not ask "last choice" so just ignored not actively disliked
    • actively disliked may be at higher risk
  2. Research has linked poor peer relations to:
    • poor school adjustment
    • psychological health
    • loneliness
    • problem behavior
    • longer term - dropping out of school,  delinquent and criminal behavior, mental health difficulties
  3. Measurement Issues:
        Self and other report data-
    • quickly administered
    • little or no training required
    • not very costly
    • hard to use with the very young
  4. Self and other report data instruments:
    • Child behavior scale
    • Social skills rating system
  5. Child behavior scale measures:
    • aggressiveness
    • anxious/fearfulness
    • prosociality/ withdrawn
    • peer exclusion
  6. Social skills rating system measures
    • Social Skills -
    • cooperative
    • assertive
    • responsible/dependable
    • empathy
    • self control
    • Problem Behaviors - 
    • externalizing
    • internalizing
    • hyperactive
  7. Observational Data
     -issues:
    • Considered the gold standard
    • length of observation
    • behavioral variability across situations
    • types of problems best assessed this way
    • difficulty of assessing reliability of observation
    • time intensive and expensive
  8. Definition of friendship:
    • friends vs aquaintances
    • just friends vs good friends
    • good friends vs best friends
    • best/close friends vs the best of friends
  9. Choices in identifying friends
    • who should name the friends?
    • how should researchers ask for friendship nominations?
    • how many should respondants be allowed to name?
    • who can be named as a friend? Do they have to be in the same class? the same school?
    • does there have to be reciprocity?
  10. Common research topics
    • nature of childhood disorders
    • correlates, risks, and causes
    • moderating and mediating variables
    • outcomes associated with childhood problems
    • interventions
  11. issues in evaluating research
    • validity (external internal)
    • sample characteristics
  12. special problems in research with children
    -Subject characteristics-
    • developmental level
    • source of subjects
    • diagnostic classifications
  13. special problems in research with children-
    -measures of behavior
    • inadequate standardization and validation
    • necessity to use different measures
    • type of observer and relationship to child
    • developmental versus trait variance
  14. Special problems in research with children
    • subject characteristics
    • measures of behavior
    • avoiding pathological bias
    • problems in measuring change
  15. Ethical issues in research
    • informed consent
    • voluntary participation
    • confidentiality and anonymity
  16. Defining characteristics in bullying
    • intent to harm
    • repetition over time
    • power differential
  17. Forms of bullying
    Early Studies:
    focused on physical and verbal
  18. Forms of bullying
    Since 1980s shift to subtler forms:
    • social manipulation
    • harming or threatening target's relationships
    • damaging target's self esteem or social status (making them feel stupid, ugly)
  19. Forms of bullying
    Recently:
    cyber bullying or electronic
  20. Types of cyber bullying
    • harassment
    • denigration
    • flaming
    • impersonality
    • outing and trickery
    • cyber stalking
  21. Flaming
    online fight, angry vulgar language back and forth
  22. Assessing bullying
    • questionnaires are most common
    • children most often informants
    • peer versus self
  23. Bullies
    • driven by status goals (want to be admired)
    • may be socially competent
    • social cognitions (tend to be very confident about being aggressive, expect a positive outcome)
    • familial risk (abusive families)
  24. Victims
    • bullies select easy victims
    • submissive
    • insecure about themselves
    • rejected by the peer group
    • physically week
  25. Victimization associated with a number of problems
    • depression
    • loneliness
    • anxiety
    • low social and general self esteem
    • *into adulthood
  26. What does the bully want?
    social status, dominant position in group
  27. 4 roles of witnesses
    • 1. observers
    • 2. join in/reinforcers
    • 3. intervene/defenders of victims
    • 4. assistants
  28. Why dont peers intervene more?
    bystander effect
  29. How can we use what we know about bullying to plan more effective interventions?
    • bullying a "group process"
    • mobilize peer group to support victim
    • raise childrens awareness
  30. interview with parents:
    • health history
    • social history
    • cognitive history
    • prenatal, peri-natal, post natal
  31. intelligence testing
    • individually administered
    • Examples: wechler intelligence scale for children and wechler preschool and primary scale of intelligence
  32. Achievement testing
    -peabody individual achievement test revised-
    • general info
    • reading recognition
    • reading comp
    • mathematics
    • spelling
    • written expression
  33. Developmental assessment
    Denver Developmental Screening inventory
  34. Denver developmental screening inventory
    • aid early identification of developmental problems and delays in preschool children
    • person - social, fine motor adaptive, language, gross motor
  35. Personality tests
    • Standardized - MMPI (adolescent norms), personality inventory for children
    • Projective tests - rorschach, family drawings, TAT, CAT
  36. Behavior Problem Checklist
    • 55 items describing problems occuring in childhood or adolescence' 
    • 3 point scale (no problem, mild problem, severe problem)
    • 3 primary scales
    • -conduct problems
    • -personality problem
    • -inadequacy-immaturity
  37. Diagnosis and classification
    -Reasons for classifying:
    • provide an orderly way to systemize collection of clinical data
    • communication with other professionals
    • development of scientific theories
    • information retrieval
    • research design
    • treatment planning
    • legal usage
    • funding issues
  38. Harmful effects of classifying
    • prejudice and rejection
    • negative expectations
    • destructiveness in interpretation of behavior
  39. elimination disorders
    • encopresis - fecal soiling
    • enuresis - bed wetting
  40. Criteria to evaluate a classification system
    • reliability
    • validity
    • utility
  41. approaches to classifying
    • categorical systems
    • dimensional approach
  42. Categorical systems
    • clinically based 
    • DSM
  43. Dimensional approach
    • begins with statistical analysis - factor analysis
    • achenbach - 2 broad categories
    • internalizing 
    • externalizing

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