glossary terms

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glossary terms
2012-10-29 16:56:10
science chapter

chapter 3 glossary terms, ecosystems
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  1. Biodiversity
    • the number and variety of organisms found in a specific region
    • ex. almost 5000 species of plants heve been identified in canada
  2. Protect
    to legally guard from harm a species that is listed as endangered, threatened, or of special concern
  3. Biodiversity hotspot
    a place where there is an exceptionally large number of  species in a relitively small area
  4. community
    all the populations of the different species that interactin a specific area or ecosystem
  5. dominant species
    a species that is so abundant that it has the biggest biomass of any community member
  6. keystone species
    a species that can greatly affect population numbers abd the health of an ecosystem
  7. captive breeding
    the breeding of rare or endangered wildlife in controlled settings to increase the population size
  8. ecosystem engineer
    a species that causes such dramatic changes to landscapes that it creates a new ecosystem
  9. succession
    the series of changes in ecosystems that occurs over time following a disturbance
  10. habitat loss
    occurs when events, due to natural disasters or human activities alter a terrestrial or aquatic ecosystem so much that many species can no longer survive there
  11. deforestation
    occurs when forests are logged or cleared for human use, or for mosquito control
  12. alien species
    • a species that is accidentally or deliberately introduced to a new location, usually as a result of human activity
    • ex. zebra mussels
  13. invasive speies
    • a species that can take over the habitat of native species or invade their bodies
    • ex. zebra mussels
  14. overexploitation
    • use or extraction of a resource until it is depleted.
    • ex. overfishing of atlantic cod, overhunting of passenger pigeons
  15. extinction
    • the death of all the individuals of a species
    • may happen naturally through background extinction, caused by slow changes in ecosystems that affect species, or through mass extinction, which occurs more quickly
  16. biodiversity crisis
    the current accelerated rate of extinctions on earth
  17. restoration ecology
    • the renewal of degraded or destroyed ecosystems through active human intervention
    • restoration methods:
    • 1. reforestation
    • 2.wetlands restoration
    • 3. controlling alien species
    • 4.bioremediation
    • 5. bioaugmentation
  18. reforestation
    re-growth of a forest either through natural processes or through the planting of seeds or trees in an area where a forest was cut down
  19. biocontrol
    the use of a species to control the populationor spread of an undesirable species
  20. bioremediation
    • the use of living organisms to clean up contaminated areas naturally
    • ex. use of plants to absorb heavy metals from toxic soil
    • ex. use of bacteria to clean up oil spills on the coast
  21. bioaugmentation
    • the use of living organisms to add essential nutrients to depleted soils
    • ex. use of clover to add nitrogen to depleted soils