criminology 100

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margs10
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175345
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criminology 100
Updated:
2012-10-04 01:30:59
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criminology theories
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different theories
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  1. What is the Uniform Crime Report (UCR)? 
    -# various crimes that have become known to the nation police  department
  2. What do the UCR statistics tell us about the crime rates in the United
    States?
    that most crimes isn't reported
  3. Are the statistics of crime accurate?(UCR)
    -no statistics of crime are not accurate
  4. How does criminality in the
    United States compare to criminality in other industrialized western nations?
    • -united states: not evenly distributed differences: found within
    • communities





    • -united states: not evenly
    • distributed differences: found within communities

    • -western nation:
    • lawlessness in the u.s rivals or surpasses. (lethal violence)
    • -




    -
  5. How do people develop their opinions about crime and criminality? 
    theough personal experience
  6. what is the relationship between theory and policy?
    • theory: consequences crime , crime changes and so does policies
    • -that as crime changes so do the policies of the criminal justices 
  7. How is crime distributed in
    the United States?
    -not equally distributed
  8. What is the difference
    between the criminologist’s theory of crime and the average individual’s
    theory of crime?
    • criminology theory: focuses on theories and policies ex: laws and
    • boundaries

    • -individuals:
    • personal experience that visualize crime :bank robbed
  9. How has theory changed with the social context / how are theories of
    crime influenced by the social context in which people live?
    • -social context: majority believe social factors role in causation
    • crime
    • ex: bad family life, unemployment
    • upbringing, religion, family, media, victimization
  10. -society changes  crime changes as well
  11. Why are anomie-strain
    theories, differential association theories,
    and control theories considered mainstream theories?
    • *personal
    • social control criminal tradition of the American dream  linked to juvenile delinquency
    • -differential: how crime occurred individuals
    • learned cultural definition supportive of illegal conduct (Chicago)
    • -control: crime occurs when controls weakened
    • (Chicago)

    • -anomie strain: explored crime
    • occurs when ppl thwarted in their effort to achieve success. (merton)
  12. What is the difference between
    the positivist school and the classical school?
    • -positivist: scientific study, criminal and non criminal
    • were different “biological traits

    • -classical: spiritual
    • or religious, emphasis on rational making const benefits
  13.  What is the main problem with scientifically justified policies?
    • - cannot be tested or valid
    • dated empirically 
  14. 1.       What
    were the two distinct lines developed by the psychogenic school? Describe.
    • -psychoanalysis: freud, tension between unconscious
    • aggressive biological conscious ego controls molds individual

    • -personality traits: feeblemindedness, insanity stupidity
    • to be inherited ex: jukes family, attempt to explain mental faculties
    • biologically
  15. What is phrenology?
    -shape some1 head explain their personal characteristics
  16. 1.       Explain and describe Sheldon’s different body
    types.  Which one was most related to criminal
    behavior?
    -endomorphy: soft and fat (santa clause)

    -mesomorphy: muscular and athletic (gangster)

    -ectomorphy: skinny and flat (nerd)

    - Most criminal behavior: mesomorphy
  17. 1.       What
    was the eugenics movement?  What policies
    are attributed to this movement?
    • - claimed inheritance
    • could explain presence of simple and complex human behavioral characteristics,
    • reinforced biological determinism

    • -laws: permitting
    • psychosurgeries frontal lobotomy, miscegenation and immigration restriction, sterilization
    • and psychosurgery continues, (sucker push)
  18. According to Shaw and McKay, how are criminal values transmitted?
    • drawn by older4 siblings, or gang members , disorganized produced and
    • sustain criminal traditions
  19. According
    to Sutherland, what determines whether a person embraces crime as an acceptable
    way of life?
    • Ratio of definition Criminal or
    • conventional

    • - learned through social
    • interactions

    -regulated criminal behavior
  20. According
    to Sampson, what is the importance of collective efficacy?
    • -social cohesion among neighbors
    • combined willingness intervene on behalf of the common good

    • -depending one another to
    • enforce rules and civility good behavior (neighborhood watch)

    -
  21. What is the “code of the street?”
    • demands disrespect met with immediate threat or violence
    • -anderson

    • -inner-city ppl inclined to commit
    • aggression & violence towards 1 another

    • -governs the choice adolescents make
    • in their daily lives
  22. Why
    is collective efficacy not evenly distributed across communities?
    • -robust predictor level  violence and mediated between crime
    • residential stability

    • - differ in levels of
    • criminal behavior
  23. According to Akers, what is the importance of social reinforcements?
    • -weather any behavior is repeated: differential
    • social reinforcement

    get involved through imitation
  24. What role does imitation and social
    reinforcements play in Akers’s social learning theory
    • -imitation
    • can involve forays into crime

    • -social
    • reinforcements determine whether any behavior is repeated
  25. Which mode of
    adaptation do most individuals use as a response to strain?
    • conform: means and goals is source of problems for alleviating ,
    • changing their cultural goals 
  26. What
    is anomie?
    -focused on social institution, economy


    • distinctive of culture and
    • structure American society

    • (American Dream)
    • (American Dream)
  27. According
    to Cohen, what is the importance of
    subcultures?
    • -ponder cultural transmission
    • and inducing strain might be reconciled

    • -not only supportive
    • of crime but also nonutiltarian malicious and negativistic
  28. Describe
    Merton’s typology of modes of individual adaptation.  Give examples
    of each.
    • -       
    • condition fundamental to American society in
    • general were the core of nation crime deviance (not biological or organic)

    • -innovation: embrace success,
    • turn into illegitimate means

    • Ritualism: maintain conformity
    • to the norms of gov institution means but NOT goals ex: daily routines

    • Retreatism: relinquish
    • allegiance to cultural success goal and instutnalise mean ( are in society but
    • not of it)(economic ladder) ex: alcoholism, drug addiction

    • Rebellion: not only
    • reject but wish to change the excising system ex: argues for group success 
  29. What is the central premise of Merton’s Strain Theory, Agnew’s General
    Strain Theory, and Messner & Rosenfeld’s
    Institutional Anomie Theory? 
  30. What is the main theoretical premise of control theory?
    -crime fun rewarding control absent ,possible occur: control=NOt occur
  31. According to Durkheim, what is
    the difference between the civilized person and the primal person? 
  32. What
    is the looking-glass self? 
    • development of imagining how they appear others interpret evaluate
    • perceive by forming a sense of self based on that process
  33. What
    is the difference between direct controls and indirect controls?-
    -direct control: external forces


    • -indirect controls:
    • affection and identification with authority figures
  34. What
    is the difference between personal control and social control? 
    • personal control: individual
    • retain needs conflict with norms and rules community

    • social control:
    • groups or institute to make rules effective
  35. What
    are the differences between pushes and pulls? Give an example of each.
    • -pushes: towards of life of
    • delinquency ex: poverty

    • -pull: towards
    • misbehavior ex: illegitimate opportunities
  36. What
    are techniques of neutralization?
    • - (what
    • is it?)
    • -know right  from wrong, delinquent retain commitment in
    • standard behavior learning excuses
    • -denial
    • responsibility, denial of injury, denial of the victim, condemnation of the
    • condemners, appeal to higher loyalties
  37. What
    are the factors of outer containment? What are the factors of inner
    containment? For Reckless, which is more
    important: outer containment or inner containment? Why?
    • inner containment: control
    • individual no matter how external environment changed Ex: self concept , goal
    • orientated, restoration tolerance, norms retention

    • -outer containment: concentrating
    • external model modern society and urban ex: reasonable limits, roles and
    • activity, complimentary valuables

    • -Outer containment because you
    • can start at a young age to help those going through the wrong path.
  38. According
    to Reiss, how is social control held from the perspective of the person? How is
    social control held from the standpoint of the group? How is delinquency
    related to personal and social controls?
    • perspective of person: social
    • control held to lie in the acceptance of or submission to the authority of the institution
    • and reinforcement of existing personal controls by institutional control

    • -standpoint of the group: nature
    • and strength of norms of institutions and the effectiveness and institutional
    • rules in obtaining behavior and conformity with the norms

    • -delinquency related to personal
    • and social control: viewed as functional consequences of the failure , pin down
    • factors had occur before any causes
  39. Describe drift theory. Why did Matza argue
    that more than a loss of control was necessary to explain delinquent behavior?
    What did he mean by preparation and
    desperation?
    • argued D retained a commitment to conventional society standard behavior
    • knew right from wrong
  40. According to Durkheim, what is
    the difference between the civilized person and the primal person?
    • Civilized: human potential in socialization and cultivation
    • ex:  civilized member of the community

    • Primal: incomplete without society, full of impulses knowing
    • no natural limits

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