ANTH 101 CH 8-11

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ANTH 101 CH 8-11
2012-10-21 03:16:36
Political Systems Gender Kinship Marriage

Political Systems,Gender, Kinship, Marriage
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  1. Tribe
    food-producing society with rudimentary political structure
  2. Conflict Resolution
    Means of settling disputes
  3. Law
    legal code of state society, with trial and enforcement
  4. Village Head
    local tribal leader with limited authority (always a man)
  5. Big Man
    generous tribal entreprenuer with multivillage support (almost always male)
  6. Pantribal Sodalities
    nonkin-based group with regional political significance
  7. Age Set
    unisex (usually male) political group; includes everyone born within a certain time span
  8. Office
    permanent political position
  9. Differential Access
    favored access to resources by superordinates over subordinates.
  10. Superordinate
    upper, privileged, group in a stratefied society
  11. Subordinate
    lower, underprivilaged, group in a stratefied society
  12. Wealth
    basis of economic status, all a person's material assets
  13. Power
    basis of political status, ability to control others
  14. Prestige
    esteem, respect, or approval
  15. Fiscal
    pertaining to finances and taxation
  16. Hegemony
    subordinates accept hierarchy as "natural"
  17. Public Transcript
    open, public interactions between dominators and oppressed
  18. Hidden Transcript
    Hidden resistance to dominance, by the oppressed
  19. Sexual Dimorphism
    marked differences in male and female biology, beyond the obvious
  20. Gender Roles
    the tasks and activities that a culture assigns to each sex
  21. Gender Stereotypes
    Oversimplified, strongly held views about males and females
  22. Gender Stratification
    unequal distribution of social resources between men and women
  23. Domestic-Public Dichotomy
    work at home versus more valued work outside
  24. Matrilineal Descent
    descent traced through women only
  25. Patrilineal Descent
    descent traced through the men only
  26. Patrilocality
    married couple resides in husband's community
  27. Matrilocality
    married couple resides in wife's community
  28. Matrifocal
    Mother-centered (i.e. household with no resident husband-father)
  29. Patrilineal-Patrilocal Complex
    male supremacy based on patrilineality, patrilocality, and warfare
  30. Extradomestic
    outside the home; public
  31. Patriarchy
    political system ruled by men
  32. Sexual Orientation
    sexual attraction to persons of the opposite sex, same sex, either sex, or neither sex
  33. Asexuality
    indifference toward or lack of attraction to either sex
  34. Descent Group
    group based on belief in shared ancestry
  35. Family of Orientation
    Nuclear family in which one is born and grows up
  36. Family of Procreation
    Nuclear family established when one marries and has children
  37. Neolocality
    couple establishes new residence
  38. Extended Family Household
    household with three or more generations
  39. Unilineal Descent
    matrilineal or patrilineal descent
  40. Lineage
    unilineal descent group based on demonstrated descent
  41. Clan
    unilineal descent group based on stipulated descent
  42. Demonstrated Descent
    members can recite the names of their forebears in each generation from the apical ancestor through the present
  43. Apical Ancestor
    person who stands at the apex (top) of the common genealogy (Adam and Eve)
  44. Local Descent Group
    any branch of a descent group that lives in one place
  45. Totem
    an animal or plant that is the apical ancestor of a clan
  46. Ambilineal
    flexible descent rule, neither patrilineal or matrilineal
  47. Kinship Calculation
    how people in a particular society reckon kin relations
  48. Ego
    position from which one views an egocentric genealogy
  49. Bilateral Kinship Calculation
    Kin ties calculated equally through men and women
  50. Functional Explanation
    explanation based on correlation or co-occurrence of social variables
  51. Lineal Kinship Terminology
    Four parental kin terms: distinguishes lineal relatives from collateral relatives

    found in societies where the nuclear family is the most important group based on kinship.

    Neolocal residence rule: Industrialism and Foraging economies
  52. Lineal Relative
    ego's direct ancestors and descendents
  53. Collateral Relative
    relative outside ego's direct line
  54. Affinals
    relatives by marriage
  55. Bifurcate Merging Kinship Terminology
    Four parental kin terms: found in societies with unilineal descent rules and unilocal postmarital residence rules

    Bifurcates (splits) the mother's side and father's side, but also merges same-sex siblings of each parent.

    Residence rule: Unilocal

    Economy: Horticulture, Pastoralism, Agriculture
  56. Generational Kinship Terminology
    Two parental generation kin terms: found in societies with ambilineal descent

    • uses the same term for parents and siblings:
    • male member of the parental generation = father
    • female member of the parental generation = mother

    Residence Rule: Ambilocal

    Economy:  Agriculture, Horticulture, Foraging
  57. Bifurcate Collateral Kinship Terminology
    Six seperate parental kin terms

    Most specific kin classification system.  Found in various situations (i.e. biracial family with 2 different languages)
  58. Genitor
    a child's biological father
  59. Pater
    one's socially recognized father
  60. Exogamy
    marriage outside a given group
  61. Incest
    forbidden sexual relations with a close relative
  62. Parallel Cousins
    children of two brothers or sisters

    belong to the same moiety as ego
  63. Moiety
    half (organization) - "same half/side" of family
  64. Cross Cousins
    children of a brother and sister

    belong to the opposite moiety from ego
  65. Endogamy
    marriage of people from the same group
  66. Homogamy
    to marry someone similar - i.e. similar SES
  67. Mater
    socially recognized mother of a child
  68. Bridewealth
    Marital gift by husband's group to wife's group
  69. Progeny Price
    marital gifts by the husband's group to the wife's group; legitimizes their children
  70. Dowry
    substantial gifts to the husband's family from the wife's family
  71. Plural Marriage
    more than two spouses simultaneously (aka Polygamy)
  72. Polygyny
    man has more than one wife at the same time

    when the infertile wife stays married to the husband after he finds a substitute wife provided by her descent group 
  73. Polyandry
    woman has more than one husband at the same time
  74. Sororate
    widower marries sister of his deceased wife
  75. Levirate
    widow marries the brother of her deceased husband