A&P Chapter 1
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A&P Chapter 1
Chapter 1 - Introduction to Human A&P
What is Anatomy?
Examines the structures, or morphology of body parts, their forms and organization.
What is Physiology?
Considers the functions of body parts, what they do and how they do it.
What is homeostasis and some examples?
Maintenance of the internal enviroment of the body within the normal range
Ex: Blood pressure, body temperature, etc
What are the levels of Biological Organization?
subatomic particles > atom > molecule > Macromolecule > organelle > cell > tissue > organ > organ system > organism
Smaller cavities in the Cranial Cavity?
Oral (mouth), nasal (nose), orbital (eyes), middle ear
What does Visceral mean?
Pertaining to the organs in a body cavity
What does Parietal mean?
Pertaining to the wall of an organ or cavity
What is Parietal Pleura?
Membrane that lines the inner wall of the thoracic cavity
What is Parietal Pericardium?
Membrane that lines the inner surface of the heart cavity
What is the Parietal Peritonium
Lines the wall of the abdominopelvic cavity
What is the Visceral Pleura?
Membrane that covers the surfaces of the lungs
What is Visceral Pericardium?
Membrane that covers the surface of the heart
What is Visceral Peritoneum?
Membrane that covers organ surfaces in the abdominal cavity
Parts of the Integumentary System?
skin, hair, nails, sweat glands and sebaceous glands
Function of Integumentary System?
Protects underlying tissues, regulates body temperature, houses sensory receptors and synthesizes substances
Parts of the Skeletal System?
bones, ligaments and cartilages
Function of Skeletal System?
Provides framework, protective shields and attachments for muscles; also produces blood cells and stores inorganic salts
Parts of the Muscular System?
Fuction of Muscular System?
Moves body parts, maintains posture and produces body heat
Parts of the Nervous System?
brain, spinal cord, nerves and sense organs
Function of Nervous System?
receive signals from sensory receptors, interprets information and acts by causing muscles or glands to respond
Parts of the Endocrine System?
glands that secrete hormones. Specifically the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries, testes, pineal gland and thymus
Function of Endrocrine System?
Hormones help regulate metabolism by stimulating target issues
Parts of the Cardiovascular System?
heart, blood vessels
Function of Cardiovascular System?
heart pumps blood, vessels carry blood to and from body parts. Blood transports oxygen, nutrients, hormones and wastes
Parts of Lymphatic System?
lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, thymus and spleen
Function of Lymphatic System?
transports lymph from tissue spaces to the bloodstream and carries certain fatty substances away from the digestive organs. Lymphocytes defend the body against disease causing agents
Parts of the Digestive System?
mouth, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small intestine and large intestine
Function of Digestive System?
receives food, breaks down nutrients into forms that can pass through cell membranes and eliminates unabsorbed materials. Some digestive organs produce hormones
Parts of the Respiratory System?
nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs
Function of Respiratory System?
takes in and releases air and exchanges gases between the blood and the air
Parts of the Urinary System?
kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and urethra
Function of Urinary System?
filters wastes from the blood and helps maintain fluid and electrolyte balance
Parts of the Female Reproductive System?
ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, clitoris and vulva
Function of Female Reproductive System?
produces, maintains and transports female sex cells; also supports development and birth of offspring
Parts of the Male Reproductive System?
scrotum, testes, epididymides, ductus deferentia, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, urethra and penis
Function of Male Reproductive System?
produces, maintains and transports male sex cells (sperm)
Directional Term: Superior
#1 means a part is above another part
Directional Term: Inferior
#2 means a part is below another part
Directional Term: Anterior (Ventral)
#3 means toward the front
Directional Term: Posterior (Dorsal)
#4 means toward the back
Directional Term: Medial
#5 a part is medial if it is closer to the midline than another part
Directional Term: Lateral
#6 means toward the side, away from midline
Directional Term: Proximal
#7 a part is closer to a point of attachment to the trunk than another body part
Directional Term: Distal
#8 part is farther from a point of attachment to the trunk
Directional Term: Superficial
near the surface
Directional Term: Deep
describes more internal parts
#1 midsaggital is when it divides the body into equal parts
What is a cross section?
a cut across the structure
What is a longitudinal section?
a lengthwise cut
What is an oblique section?
an angular cut
Homeostatic Mechanism: Receptors
1st component: Provide information about specific conditions in the internal environment.
Homeostatic Mechanism: Control Center
2nd component: detects deviation from a set point, which is a particular value such as blood pressure or temp and signals effectors
Homeostatic Mechanism: Effectors
Abdominal Regions: Right and Left hypochondriac
1 & 3
Abdominal Regions: Right and Left lumbar
4 & 6
Abdominal Regions: Right & Left iliac
7 & 9
Abdominal Regions: Epigastric
Abdominal Regions: Umbilical
Abdominal Regions: Hypogastric