Exam 4 labs a.txt

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Exam 4 labs a.txt
2010-05-03 15:44:37
anatomy exam labs

anatomy exam 4 labs
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  1. GI tract
    continuous tube extending from the mouth to the anus
  2. Organs of the GI tract
    mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
  3. Accessory digestive structures
    teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallblader, pancrease
  4. Teeth
    aid in the physical breakdown of food
  5. tongue
    assists in chewing and swallowing
  6. other digestive accessory functions
    produce or store secretions aiding in the breakdown of food
  7. first step of digestion
  8. Oropharynx epithelium
    stratified squamous
  9. Parotid Gland
    serous secreting
  10. Parotid gland location
    under and infront of each ear
  11. Serous secreting glands
    secrete thin watery fluid containing digestive enzymes
  12. Sublingual Gland location
    under the tongue
  13. Sublingual gland
    mucus secreting
  14. mucus secreting glands
    secrete a viscous secretion which lubricates the food being broken down in the mouth
  15. Submandibular gland location
    located near the angle of the jaw
  16. Pharynx
    acts as a conduit to the stomach
  17. esophagus
    acts as a conduit to the stomach
  18. esophageal hiatus
    where the esophagus goes through the diaphragm
  19. hiatal hernia
    when the stomach protrudes above the diaphragm through the esophageal hiatus
  20. swallowing
    moves a lump of moistened food from the mouth to the stomach
  21. bolus
    lump of moistened food
  22. first stage of swallowing
    voluntary stage in which the bolus moves to the oropharynx
  23. second stage of swallowing
    pharyngeal stage, the involuntary passage of the bolus through the pharynx into the esophagus
  24. Third stage of swallowing
    esophageal stage, involuntary passage of the bolus through the esophagus into the stomach
  25. Peristalsis
    food is pushed through the esophagus by involuntary muscular movements
  26. functions of the stomach
    mixing area and holding reservoir
  27. stomach
    chemical digestion continues, solid foods are mixed with gastric juice
  28. chyme
    solid foods mixed with gastric juice
  29. Path of food through the stomach
  30. lesser omentum
    binds the stomach to the liver
  31. greater omentum
    connects the stomach to the transverse colon
  32. cardia
    small area surrounding the esophageal opening
  33. fundus
    above the level of the esophageal opening
  34. body
    extends from the fundus to the pylorus
  35. Pylorus
    extends from the body to the duodenum
  36. pyloric sphincter
    controls the amount of material leaving the stomach
  37. rugae
    longitudinal folds of the mucosa; distend with food
  38. small intestines
    major site of digestion and absorption
  39. Path through the small intestine
    Duodenum--> Jejunum--> ileum
  40. circular folds
    increase surface area for absorption in stomach
  41. functions of the large intestines
    fluid reabsorption and storage of fecal matter
  42. ileocecal valve
    separates the ileum from the cecum
  43. cecum
    sac like pouch
  44. appendix
    tube like extension of cecum
  45. internal and external anal sphincters
    control the output of the anus
  46. taeniae coli
    external longitudunal muscle coat of large intestine
  47. haustra
    pouches of colon
  48. liver
    produces and secretes bile
  49. hepatic duct
    transports bile from the liver to the gallbladder
  50. gallbladder
    stores bile
  51. bile becomes _____concentrated the longer it stays in the gallbladder
  52. overconcentration of bile forms
  53. hepatic portal vein
    entrance of blood vessels that absorb nutrients into liver
  54. hepatic artery
    entrance of oxygenated blood to the liver
  55. pancrease
    synthesizes digestive enzymes
  56. pancreatic islets
    produce insulin and glucagon
  57. acinar cells
    make enzymes that break down proteins
  58. 4 layers if GI tract
    mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, serosa/ adventitia
  59. 3 layers of mucosa
    epithelial, lamina propria, muscularis mucosae
  60. lamina propria
    contains blood vessels, nerve endings, and glands
  61. muscularis mucosae
    thin layer of smooth muscle
  62. submucosa
    contains blood and lymph vessels and lymph nodes, glands, nerves
  63. muscularis
    inner circular and outer longitudinal smooth muscle with myenteric plexus in the middle
  64. adventitia
    anchors structures to organs
  65. serosa
    continuous peritoneum
  66. autorhythmicity of smooth muscle of the GI tract is controlled by___
    submucosal plexus and myenteric plexus
  67. number of sphincters
    3; stomach and duodenum, small and large intestine, anus
  68. sphincters
    control passage of food
  69. Esophagus epithelium
    stratified squamous
  70. stomach epithelium
    simple columnar
  71. stomach has gastric ___
  72. Fundic body of stomach has ____ and ____ cells located in the mucosa
    parietal and cheif
  73. Parietal cells are located in ____ and secrete____
    mucosa of the stomach; HCl
  74. duodenum epithelium
    simple columnar
  75. Duodenum goblet cells
  76. Duodenum has ______ glands
  77. duodenum have ____ shaped villi
  78. Jejunum epithelium
    simple columnar cells
  79. jejunum has _____ shaped villi
  80. jejunum sub mucosa has _____ glands
  81. Brunner's glands
    alkalyne secretions that increase pH
  82. Ileum epithelium
    simple columnar
  83. ileum has ___shaped villi
  84. Ileum mucosa and submucosa has ______ ________
    Peyer's patches
  85. Colon epithelium
    simple columnar
  86. Colon has ____ villi
  87. Colon has almost all _____ cells
  88. Rectum epithelium
    simple columnar
  89. rectum has almost all _____ cells
  90. Anus epithelium
    stratified squamous
  91. Adventitia becomes serosa in _____ and returns in ______
    Stomach; Rectum
  92. Kupffer cells
    fixed phagocytic cells lining the hepatic sinusoids
  93. sinusoids
    tiny channels where exchange of materials occurs
  94. canaliculi
    drainage ditches between parallel columns of the back to back liver cells
  95. bile
    detergent like molecule that serves to emulsify dietary fats
  96. path of bile
    bile canaliculi--> Bile Duct--> common hepatic duct-->galbladder
  97. hepatocyte
    secretes bile; forms sinusoids