Honors Bio

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Honors Bio
2012-10-03 19:30:58

Vocab for chapters 4 and 5
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  1. Phagocytes
    Animal cells that "ingest" bacteria and viruses that invade the body.
  2. Cytolysis
    Bursting of a cell due to water diffusing into it.
  3. Sodium-Potassium pump
    Carrier protien that actively transports sodium ions and potassium ions up their concentration gradients.
  4. Organelles
    Well-defined intracellular bodies that perform specific functions for the cell.
  5. Isotonic
    Concentration of solutes outside and inside the cell are equal.
  6. Cytoplasm
    Region of the cell that is within the plasma membrane that contains the fluid, cytoskeleton, and organelles except the nucleus.
  7. Chromosomes
    Densely packed, coiled chromatin strands that signal a cell is about to divide.
  8. Nuclear Envelope
    Double membrane of the nucleus.
  9. Phagocytosis
    Endocytosis of large particles or whole cells.
  10. Pinocytosis
    Endocytosis of solutes or fluids.
  11. Equilibrium
    Equal concentration of molecules throughout a space.
  12. Central Vacuole
    Fluid-filled organelles that store enzymes and metabolic wastes for plant cells.
  13. Organ System
    Group of organs that work together to perform a set of related tasks.
  14. Tissue
    Groups of cells that carry out a specific functions.
  15. Flagella
    Hair like organelles that are long and less numerous on a cell then cilia.
  16. Nucleus
    Large organelle near the center of the cell: controls most of the functions of the eukaryotic cells.
  17. Microtubules
    Largest strands of the cytoskeleton; hollow tubes that extend outward from a central point near the nucleus.
  18. Microfilaments
    Major component of the cytoskeleton; threads made of actin molecules linked together.
  19. Vesicle
    Membrane-bound organelle formed by pinching off of the cell membrane during endocytosis.
  20. Ion Channels
    Membrane protiens for passive transport of ions, such as calcium ions or chloride ions.
  21. Passive Transport
    Movement across the cell membrane without any input of energy by the cell.
  22. Diffusion
    Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
  23. Cytoskeleton
    Network of thin tubes and filaments that crisscross the cytosol.
  24. Contractile Vacuoles
    Organelles that collect and remove excess water from the cell.
  25. Eukaryotes
    Organisms whose cells contain a membrane-bound nucleus and other organelles.
  26. Facilitated Diffusion
    Passive transport for molecules that cannot diffuse rapidly through cell membranes on their own.
  27. Plastids
    Plant organelles that contain DNA and are surrounded by two membranes; some contain pigments that absorb light.
  28. Chloroplasts
    Plastid in which the energy of sunlight is converted into chemical energy in organic compunds.
  29. Ribosomes
    Organelles made of protein and RNA that direct protein synthesis in the cytoplasm.
  30. Turgor Pressure
    Pressure that water molecules exert against the cell wall.
  31. Endocytosis
    Process by which cells ingest external fluid, macromolecules, and large particles.
  32. Osmosis
    Process by which water molecules diffuse across a cell membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
  33. Plasmolysis
    Process of water leaving the cell through osmosis so that cells shrink away from the cell walls.
  34. Golgi Apparatus
    Processing, packaging, and secreting organelle of the cell; series of flattened sacs.
  35. Exocytosis
    Reverse of endocytosis; fusion of vesicles with the cell membrane to release their contents to the cell exterior.
  36. Cell Wall
    Rigid layer that lies outside the cell's plasma membrane.
  37. Cell Theory
    Scientific theory that describes cells as the basic unit of all living things.
  38. Organs
    Several types of tissues that interact to perform a specific function.
  39. Cilia
    Short, hair-like projections from the surface of a cell; where present, there are large numbers of them covering the cell's surface.
  40. Mitochondria
    Site of chemical reactions that transfer energy from organic compounds to ATP.
  41. Nucleolus
    Dense area of the nucleus where ribosomal RNA is made.
  42. Hypertonic
    Term referring to a solution when the concentration of solute molecules is higher than the concentration in the cytosol.
  43. Lysosomes
    Vesicles that bud from the Golgi apparatus and that contain digestive enzymes.
  44. Cell
    Smallest unit of matter that can carry on all of the processes of life.
  45. Carrier Proteins 
    Specific membrane proteins that assist in facilitated diffusion.
  46. Thylakoids
    System of flattened, membranous sacs inside the chloroplast.
  47. Endoplasmic Reticulum
    System of membranous tubules and saces; two types smooth and rough.
  48. Plasma Membrane
    Outer boundary of a cell that acts as a barrier between the inside and outside of the cell.
  49. Acitve Transport
    Trasport across a membrane from an area of lower concentration to a higher concentration; requires the expenditure of energy.
  50. Cytosol
    Part of the cytoplasm that includes molecules and small particles; 20% made of protein.
  51. Prokaryotes
    Unicellular organisms that lack a membrane-bound nucleus and other organelles.
  52. Hypotonic
    Term referring to a solution when the concentration of solute molecules outside the cell is lower than the concentration inside the cyosol.
  53. Concentration Gradient
    Differences in the concentration of molecules across a distance.
  54. Phospholipid Bilayer
    Double layer of phospholipids that makes up plasma and organelle membranes.
  55. Centrioles
    Consist of two short cylinders of microtubules at right angles to each toher and are situated in the cytoplasm near the nuclear envelope.
  56. Chlorophyll
    The main molecule that absorbs light and captures light energy for the cell.