FT 105 Ch. 2

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FT 105 Ch. 2
2012-10-15 16:52:10
Fire behavior

Combustion Process
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  1. Matter
    Anyting that occupies space, has mass, and can be measured by one or more senses.
  2. Mass
    Measurement of quantity when weight is proportional to the mass.
  3. Solid
    Consistant portion of matter that has definite shape, and volume.
  4. Liquids
    Matter with definite volume but not shape, will take shape of vessel it is placed in.
  5. Gases
    No definite shape or volume. Shape is determined by pressure placed on gas and shape of container.
  6. Flammable Gas
    Flammable at atmospheric temperature and pressure when mixed with 13% air or less.
  7. Flammable Range
    Numerical difference between a flammable substance lower and upper explosive limit in air
  8. Inorganic
    Matter consisting primarily of earth materials

    • Rock
    • Soil
    • Air
    • Water
    • Minerals
  9. Oganic
    Matter found in living substances 

    • Plants 
    • Animals
    • Plastic 
    • Wood
    • Gasoline
    • Oil
  10. Cells
    Tiny mass of protoplasm that contains a nucleus, enclosed by a membrane.

    Forms the smallest structure of all living matter.
  11. Compound
    Substance formed from two or more elements joined with a fixed ratio.

    • Compound for wood:
    • C5H10O5
    • Six Carbon atoms
    • 10 Hydrogen atoms
    • 5 Oxygen atoms
  12. Decompostition Temperature
    Temp. a material must be heated to for it to decompose.
  13. Molecule
    Two or more atoms tightly bound by chemical bonds
  14. Atom
    Made of neutron (neutral charge), Proton (posotive charge), and Electron (negative charge). 
  15. Neutron
    Same mass as a proton but electrically neutral charge.
  16. Proton
    Positively charged particle that is the nucleus of most common isotope of hydrogen.
  17. Electron
    Very light particle with a negative charge surrounding the nucleus.
  18. Negative Ion
    Atom with an extra electron, produces a negative charge.
  19. Positive Ion
    Atom that is missing electrons.
  20. Element
    Simplest form of matter.
  21. Halogenated
    Chemical reaction in which one or more halogen atoms are incorporated into a compound.

    • EXAMPLE:
    • Chlorine
    • Bromine
    • Fluorine
  22. Cu
  23. Au
  24. Fe
  25. Pb
  26. Hg
  27. K
  28. Ag
  29. Na
  30. Sn
  31. Physical Change
    Molecules are not changed by a process

    • EXAMPLE:
    • Diesel injected into a cylinder, Cylinder moves up and creates pressure forming gas which explodes and forces the piston downward.
  32. Chemical Change
    Molecules are changed by a process.

    • EXAMPLE:
    • Water, sand, and stone mix to create concrete
  33. Barometer
    Instrument for measuring atmospheric pressure
  34. Boiling Point
    Temp. that a liquid converts to a gas at a vapor pressure equal to or greater than atmospheric pressure
  35. Vapor Pressure
    Pressure placed on inside of a closed container by the vapor in the space above the liquid the container is holding.
  36. Open Cup Test
    Realease of vapors in terms of pressure exerted at a specific temperature.
  37. Flash point
    Temp. at which a liquids vapor will ignite.
  38. Fire point
    The lowest tempurature at which a liquid produces a vapor that sustains a continuous flame.
  39. Vapor Density
    Mass of vapor divided by the volume it fills.
  40. Solubility
    Measures indicate the tendancy for chemicals to dissolve evenly in a liquid.
  41. Insolubility
    Form seperate layer and either float or sink depending on their specific gravity.
  42. Polar Solvants
    Materials that are soluable in water.
  43. Specific Gravity
    Density of a product diviede by the density of water (1.0).
  44. Boil Over
    Expulsion of a tanks contents due to expansion of water vapor trapped under oil and heated by burning oil and metal sides of tank.
  45. Auto-ignition Temperature
    Temp. which a material will ignite with no external source of heat.

  46. Lower Explosive Limit
    Lowest ingitable concentration of a substance in air that will ignite.
  47. Upper Explosive Limit
    Highest percentage of a substance in air that will ignite.