NeuroScience

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Author:
akempiak
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175414
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NeuroScience
Updated:
2012-10-14 20:16:30
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Psychology
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  1. X Neuron
    • a nerve cell
    • the basic building block of the nervous system
  2. X Biological Psychology
    a branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior.
  3. X Sensory Neurons
    neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord.
  4. X Motor Neurons
    • neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain
    • and spinal cord to the muscles and glands
  5. X Interneurons
    • neurons within the brain and spinal cord that
    • communicate internally
    • and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs.
  6. X Dendrite
    • the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron
    • that receive messages and
    • conduct impulses toward the cell body.
  7. X Axon
    • the extension of a neuron
    • ending in branching terminal fibers
    • through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands
  8. X Myelin Sheath
    • a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons
    • enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulses hop from one node to the next
  9. X Action Potential
    • a neural impulse
    • a brief electrical charge that travels down the axon.
    • The voltage shifts from -70mV to +40mV for about one millisecond when ion channels open to allow positively charged sodium ions to rush into the axon from the fluid outside the cell.
  10. X Threshold
    the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
  11. H Synapse or Synaptic space
    fluid-filled tiny gap between the terminal button of one neuron and the membrane of the next neuron
  12. X Synaptic Gap/ Synaptic cleft
    The tiny gap in between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron
  13. X Neurotransmitters
    • chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons.
    • when released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse.
  14. X endorphins
    • "morphine within"
    • natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure
    • Neuromodulators not neuro transmitters
    • "runner's high" secretion of dopamine which mute signals of pain
    • High level = insensitivity to pain
    • Low level = hypersensitivity to pain or immune problems
  15. X Acetylcholine (ACh)
    • Enables muscle action, learning, and memory
    • Connected to Alzheimer's disease- ACh-producing neurons deteriorate
    • absent of chemical = paralysis
    • high levels of chemical = violent muscle contractions
  16. X Dopamine
    • involves motivation, voluntary movement, emotion, and attention & learning
    • Excess dopamine receptor activity is linked to Schizophrenia.
    • Starved of dopamine, the brain produces the tremors and decreased mobility of Parkison's disease.
  17. X Serotonin
    • Affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal
    • Undersupply linked to depression
  18. X Norepinephrine
    • helps control alertness and arousal
    • undersupply can depress mood
    • low level = ADD, depression
    • High level = panic disorder
  19. X GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)
    • reduces neural activity in brain structures that trigger emotional arousal. (including the amygdala).
    • Low amount: Anxiety and Huntington's disorder
  20. X Glutamate
    • A major excitatory neurotransmitter involved in memory
    • oversupply can overstimulate brain, producing migraines or seizures
    • MSG = monosodium glutamate
  21. H Receptors
    large proteins embedded in the receiving cell's membrane
  22. H Ion channels
    pores in the cell's membrane that allow certain substances in the body, fluid, to enter the cell while refusing or limiting the passage of other substances
  23. H Soma
    the cell body contains the biochemical structures necessary to keep the neuron alive
  24. H Axon Hillock
    region of the soma that connects the soma to the axon
  25. Action potential threshold
    +50mV
  26. H Terminal Buttons
    • Located in a cluster at the end of the axon
    • (axon chemicals)
    • which secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters
  27. H Resting Potential
    • due to the distribution of positively and negatively charged ions inside and outside the neuron.
    • Voltage across the cell membrane is -70mV
    • ( the inside is more negative by about 70mv)
  28. H Post-Synaptic Potential (PSP)
    • is a change in voltage in the Soma
    • as a result of ions traveling in or out of the soma
    • after a neurotransmitter binds to a receptor
  29. H Excitatory Post Synaptic Potentials
    • are caused when an excitatory neurotransmitter binds to a receptor thereby
    • opening sodium ion channels so that positibely charged sodium ions enter the cell
    • causing the voltage in the soma to become +50mV
  30. H Inhibitory Post Synaptic Potential
    • are caused when an inhibitory neurotransmitter binds to a receptor
    • thereby opening potassium channels so that positively charged potassium ions exit the cell
    • or opening chloride channels so that negatively charged chloride ions enter the cell
    • causing the voltage in the soma to become +40mV
  31. H Spatial Summation
    the EPSP becomes very strong as a result of excitatory neurotansmitters binding at different receptor sites thus voltage at the axon hillock reaches threshold.
  32. H Temporal Summation
    the EPSP becomes very strong as a result of excitatory Neurotransmitters binding in rapid succession at a single recepter site thus the voltage at the axon hillock reaches threshold.
  33. EPSP
    Electrical Post Synaptic Potential
  34. H All-or-none law
    • action potentials occur at a uniform and mazimum intensity
    • (from -70mV to +40mV in an instant)
    • or they do not occur at all
  35. H Repolarization
    the voltage and distribution of ions in and outside the axon must be returned to that of resting potential
  36. H Absolute Refractory Period
    • the minimum length of time after an action potential
    • during which the axon membrane is not excitable
    • and cannot discharge another impulse
  37. H Deactivation
    • the ability of a neurotansmitter to continue to excite or inhibit the post-synaptic neuron is ended when either
    • enzymes in the synapse break the neurotransmitter down into its chemical components, or
    • the neuro transmitter is taken back up into the pre-synaptic cell (reuptake).
  38. H Chemical Imbalance
    the level of activity in cells that produce or receive a certain neurotransmitter is abnormally high or low
  39. H Antagonists
    drugs that block the action of neurotransmitters
  40. H Agonists
    drugs that mimic the action of neurotransmitters
  41. H Parkinson's Disease
    • can occur when levels of dopamine are too low in the basal ganglia.
    • Symptoms include: Motor trmors, rigid muscles
  42. H Depression
    can occur when levels of dopamine are too low in the limbic system
  43. H Schizophrenia
    • includes psychotic delusions and hallucinations
    • due to too high levels of dopamine activity in the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex
  44. H Antipsychotic drugs
    • reduce dopamine to relieve psychotic symptoms of schizophreniz,
    • but can have a side effect causing motor tremors and depression.
  45. H Morphine
    • mutes signals of pain from the body
    • and produces a "high" because it travels into the brain and binds to neurons with endorphin receptors
    • mimics endorphins and is therefore an endorphin agonist
  46. Alzheimer's
    • loss of brain cells
    • deterioration of neurons that produce ACh
    • memory and thinking suffer
  47. Graded Potential
    the voltage moves from -70mV closer and closer to +50mV as sodium enters the cell & the strength of EPSP increases.

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