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2010-05-03 16:10:38
Biology Final Holly Brokaw

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  1. Select the compound that contains the most energy:
  2. Select the phosphorylation reaction:
    glucose + ATP ? glucose-P + ADP
  3. The transfer of electrons from one compound to another is equivalent to _______________ transfer.
  4. ____________ is a process where energy (as electrons) is released,whereas ____________ is a process where energy (as electrons) is accepted.
    Oxidation; reduction
  5. Because enzymes affect the speed of chemical reactions without being consumed, they are referred to as:
  6. Parts of the enzyme molecule that interact with a substrate are called:
    active sites.
  7. The substance on which an enzyme acts is called the:
  8. Which of the following does not represent a method by which cells regulate enzyme activity?
    heat denaturation of the enzyme
  9. If one continues to increase the temperature in an enzyme-catalyzed reaction, the rate of the reaction:
    increases and then decreases rapidly.
  10. An allosteric enzyme:
    • allows a substance other than the substrate to bind to the enzyme, thereby
    • activating or inactivating it.
  11. The splitting of molecules into smaller components is referred to as:
  12. Cellular respiration is most accurately described as a(n) ______________ process.
  13. The overall reaction for the aerobic respiration of glucose is summarized as:
    C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 6 H2O ? 6 CO2 + 12 H2O + Energy.
  14. In aerobic respiration, glucose is completely:
    oxidized to carbon dioxide.
  15. In aerobic respiration, the electrons associated with the hydrogen
    • atoms in glucose are transferred to:
    • oxygen in a series of steps.
  16. If conditions are aerobic, pyruvate flows directly into the _______ where some of its atoms are converted next to _______.
    mitochondia; acetyl coenzyme A
  17. Which process matches the products?
    electron transport and chemiosmosis�ATP, H2O, NAD+, FAD
  18. Which process matches the products?
    citric acid cycle�CO2, NADH, FADH2, ATP
  19. Which process matches the products?
    formation of acetyl CoA�Acetyl CoA, CO2, NADH
  20. Which process matches the products?
    glycolysis�pyruvate, ATP, NADH
  21. In eukaryotes, glycolysis occurs in the:
    • cytosol.
    • E. mitochondrial matrix.
  22. During chemiosmosis, ____________ are transferred from NADH and FADH2 to electron acceptor molecules, and the energy released is used to create a(n) ____________ gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
    ADP molecules; ATP molecule
  23. NADH is formed when NAD+ accepts:
    a proton and a pair of electrons.
  24. Glycolysis yields a net energy profit of _______ ATP molecules per
    • molecule of glucose.
    • 2
  25. During the citric acid cycle, each acetyl group entering the cycle yields:
    1 ATP, 3 NADH, and 1 FADH2.
  26. A glucose molecule that is metabolized via aerobic respiration has been
    • completely broken down and released as CO2 by the end of:
    • the citric acid cycle.
  27. The role of the oxygen molecules required for aerobic respiration is:
    to accept the low energy electrons at the end of the electron transport chain.
  28. In chemiosmosis, ATP is produced as hydrogen ions (protons) passthrough:
    ATP synthase.
  29. Anaerobic respiration differs from aerobic respiration in that anaerobic respiration:
    can utilize NO3- as the terminal electron acceptor.
  30. The production of alcohol or lactate from pyruvate during ____________occurs as a means of regenerating ____________ from ____________.
    fermentation; NADH; NAD+
  31. The process by which light energy is converted into the stored chemical energy of organic molecules is:
  32. Light behaves not only as waves, but also as particles, which are referred to as:
  33. An electron absorbs a photon of light energy and becomes energized;the electron shifts from a ____________ atomic orbital to a _____________ atomic orbital.
    low energy; high energy
  34. Electrons that are excited to a higher energy level may be transferred to an electron acceptor or may return to a ground state. If the latter occurs, energy will be released in a process known as:
  35. Chlorophyll and accessory photosynthetic pigments are associated with the:
    light reaction centers of the stroma lamellae.
  36. By definition, substances that absorb visible light are called:
  37. The most important photosynthetic pigment(s) is(are):
    chlorophyll a.
  38. A group of thylakoid discs make up:
    a granum.
  39. In a chloroplast, there is an outer and an inner membrane. The inner membrane encloses a fluid filled region called the:
  40. The thylakoid membrane encloses a space called the:
  41. Thylakoid membranes are involved in _____ synthesis.
  42. Red and blue light support the highest rates of photosynthesis because:
    chlorophyll absorbs these wavelengths more than other wavelengths.
  43. The overall reactions of photosynthesis are best summarized as:
    6 CO2 + 12 H2O ? C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 6 H2O.
  44. The reactions of photosynthesis are divided into two categories:
    light-dependent reactions and carbon fixation reactions.
  45. In photosynthesis, ATP and NADPH are produced during: the carbon fixation reactions.
    the carbon fixation reactions
  46. The electron transport chain of photosynthesis is located in the:
    thylakoid membrane.
  47. Oxygen produced by photosynthesis comes directly from:
  48. ATP is formed when __________________ the thylakoid lumen.
    hydrogen ions leave
  49. In C4 plants, reactions that fix CO2 into four-carbon compounds occur in:
    • mesophyll cells.
    • xylem cells.
  50. At night, CAM plants incorporate CO2 into ____________, which is stored in the ____________ of their cells.
    malate; vacuoles