Pharm Exam 2 Meds

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Pharm Exam 2 Meds
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2012-10-04 07:47:29
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  1. Phenylephrine (Neo-Synephrine)
    Adrenergic Agent
    Sympathomimetic

    ACTIONS
    Intranasal - reduces nasal congestion by constricting small blood vessels in the nasal mucosa

    Topical - dilates pupil without causing significant cycoplegia

    Parenteral - can reverse acute hypotension
  2. Phenylephrine (Neo-Synephrine)
    Adrenergic agent
    Sympathomimetic

    ADVERSE EFFECTS
    Intranasal - SE uncommon - mucosa burning and rebound congestion if used for a long time.

    Topical - narrow angle glaucoma. High doses can cause refelx bradycardia due to elevation of BP caused by stimulation of Alpha1 receptors.

    Parenteral - anxiety, restlessness, and tremors due to CNS stimulation.
  3. Prazosin (Minipress)
    Adrenergic blocking agent

    ACTION
    Reduces BP.
  4. Prazosin (Minipress)
    Adrenergic blocking agent

    ADVERSE EFFECTS
    orthostatic hypotension due to Alpha1 inhibition in vascular smooth muscle.
  5. Bethanechol (Duvoid, Urecholine)
    Muscarinic Cholinerigic Receptor Agonist


    ACTIONS
    Interacts with muscarinic receptors to cause parasympathetic stimulation - most noted in the digestive and urinary tracts - stimualtes smooth muscle contraction.

    treats nonobstructive urinary retention.
  6. Bethanechol (Duvoid, Urecholine)
    Muscarinic cholinergic Receptor Agonist

    ADVERSE EFFECTS
    • predicted parasympathetic actions:
    • increased salivation, sweating, abdominal cramping, hypotension.
  7. Atropine (Atro-Pen, Atropair, Atropisol)
    Muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist

    ACTIONS
    • blocks parasympathetic actions of Ach and includes symptoms of fight or flight response.
    • Increased heart rate, bronchodilation, decreased motility in the GI tract, mydriasis, and decreased gland secretion.
  8. Atropine (Atro-Pen, Atropair, Atropisol)
    Muscarinic cholinergic recpeptor antagonist
    ADVERSE EFFECTS
    Dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention, increased heart rate.

    Initial CNS excitement may progress to delirum and even coma
  9. Lorazepam (Ativan)
    Benzodiazepine, GABAA - receptor agonist

    ACTIONS
    One of the most important benzodiazepines. Used as a preanesthetic and for management of staus epilepticus.
  10. Lorazepam (Ativan)
    Benzodiazepine, GABAA - receptor agonist

    ADVERSE EFFECTS
    most common: drowsiness & sedation

    Higher doses or IV: amnesia, weakness, disorientation, ataxia, sleep disturbance, BP changes, blurred vision, double vision, N/V.
  11. BuSpar

    Route & Adult Dose
    Sedative: PO 7.5-15mg in divided doses; may increase by 5mg/day every 2-3 hours if needed (max: 60mg/day)
  12. Zolpidem (Ambien)
    Nonbenzodiazepine GABAA receptor agonist; nonbensodiazepine nonbarbiturate CNS depressant

    ACTIONS
    preserves stages III and IV of sleep and has only minor effects on REM sleep.
  13. Zolpidem (Ambien)
    Nonbenzodiazepine GABAA receptor agonist; nonbensodiazepine nonbarbiturate CNS depressant

    ADVERSE EFECTS
    daytime sedation, confusion, amnesia, dizziness, depression, N/V
  14. phenobarbital (Luminal)
    Barbiturates
    GABAA receptor agonist

    ACTIONS
    • Depresses REM sleep (makes it better)
    • management of seizures
  15. phenobarbital (Luminal)
    Barbiturates
    GABAA receptor agonist

    ADVERSE EFFECTS
    • may cause dependence.
    • drowsiness, vitamin D, folate, B9 or B12 defeciencies.
    • laryngospasms
  16. Diazepam (Valium)
    Benzodiazepine GABAA receptor agonist

    ACTIONS
    • preferred treatment for status epilepticus.
    • When administering IV, monitor respirations ever 5-15 minutes. Have airway/resuscitative equipment accessible.
  17. Diazepam (Valium)
    Benzodiazepine GABAA receptor agonist

    ADVERSE EFFECTS
    reserved for short term seizure control, or for status epilepticus because of it's tolerance/dependency use
  18. Phenytoin (Dilantin)
    Hydantoin; Sodium influx-supressing drug

    ACTIONS
    • "Drying out drug"
    • desensitizes sodium channels in the CNS for neuronal responsitivity and prevents the spread of disruptive electrical charges in the brain that produce seizures.
    • When administering IV, mix with saline only and infuse at a the maximum rate of 50mg/min. Mixing with other meds or dextrose solutions produces precipitate.
  19. Sertaline (Zoloft)
    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRIs)

    ACTIONS
    inhibit reabsorption of serotonin and norepinephrine and elevate mood by increasing these levels in the CNS.
  20. Sertaline (Zoloft)
    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRIs)

    ADVERSE EFFECTS
    agitation, insomnia, headache, dizziness, somnolence, fatigue
  21. Phenelzine (Nardil)
    Monoamine oxidase inhibitors MAOIs


    ACTIONS
    • because of their low saftey margin, these are reserved for pt's who have not responded to TCAs or SSRIs.
    • a hypertensive crisis can occur if these drugs interact with any food containing tyamine.
  22. Phenelzine (Nardil)
    Monoamine oxidase inhibitors MAOIs

    ADVERSE EFFECTS
    constipation, dry mouth, orthostatic hypotension, insomnia

    has anticholinergic-like side effects
  23. chlorpromazine hydrochloride (Thorazine)
    Phenothiazine
    D2 dopamine receptor antagonist

    ACTIONS
    provides symptomatic relief of positive symptoms of schizophrenia and controls manic symptoms of the disorder
  24. chlorpromazine hydrochloride (Thorazine)
    Phenothiazine
    D2 dopamine receptor antagonist

    ADVERSE EFFECTS
    • Extrapyrimidial side effects include
    • acute dystonias
    •   severe muscle spams in the back, neck, tongue and face
    • akathisia
    •    inability to rest or relax
    • parkinsonism
    •    tremor, muscle rigidity, stooped posture, shuffling gait
    • tardive dyskinesia
    •    unusual tongue and face movements
  25. Haloperidol (Haldol)
    IT'S AN ANTIPSYCHOTIC!
  26. Risperidone (Risperdal)
    Atypical antipsychotic, schizophrenic drug
    • ACTIONS
    • treatment and prevention of schizophrenic relapse and expression of bipolar mania.

    • ADVERSE EFFECTS
    • involuntary shaking of head, neck and arms.hyperactivity, fatigue, nausea, dizziness, visual disorder
  27. Morphine (Astramorph PF, Duramorph, others)
    Opioid analgesic
    • ACTIONS
    • binds with mu and kappa receptor sites to produce analgesia.

    • ADVERSE EFFECTS
    • dysphoria, hallucinations, nausea, constipation, dizziness, and itching sensation
  28. Naloxone (Narcan)
    Opioid receptor antagonist
    treatment for acute opioid overdose and misuse.

    Do the opposite of opioid analgesics
  29. lidocaine (Xylocaine)
    Amides
    Sodium channel blocker
    • ACTIONS
    • most used injectable anesthetic by blocking neuronal pain impulses.

    • ADVERSE REACTIONS
    • (uncommon) convulsions, respiratory depression, cardiac arrest
  30. Halothane (Fluothane)
    General anesthetic
    Inhalation volatile liquid
    Halothane produces a potent level of surgical anesthesia that is rapid in onset.

    malgnant hyperthermia is rare but potentially fatal adverse reaction triggered by all inhalation anesthetics.

    dysrhythmias are a concern.

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