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What is a Proto oncogene
Cell that regulates cell division by promoting growth
What is an Oncogene
Mutant cell that proliferates (malignancy transformation)
What is a Tumor suppressor gene
Cell that regulates cell growth by stopping or slowing cell growth, may induce apoptosis
What is a pluri potent stem cell
A cell that can become anytype of cell or body tissue
What is the process of differentiation
Process of acquiring a specified function. Slide stated it is returning to earlier form of cell. Occasionally these cancer cells produce hormones not produced by parent cell.
What is de-differentiation
Cell that stays in the premature state, it does not differentiate into specific cell. (cancer cells are de-differentiated cells, they do this to stay alive, because once differentiated, they would then die).
What is cancer arising from the connective tissue called
What is cancer of brain or brain tumor
What is cancer from lymphatic tissue
What is cancer of the blood forming cells?
What is cancer from the epithelial cells
Name 6 attributes of cancer cells
- 1) Enhanced proliferation (increase proto oncogenes, decrease suppressor cells)
- 2) Insensitivity to antigrowth signals (P53 suppressor cells, either turn off or ignore)
- 3) Evading apoptosis - apoptosis pathway disabled
- 4) Limitless replicative potiential - don't die
- 5) Sustained angiogenesis - creates own blood supply (VEGF recruits new vascular endothelial cells)
- 6) Tissue invation and metastasis - decrease cell adhesion, secretion protease, able to grow in new location
What is the process or ability of the cancer cell to make its own blood vessels called
How are the cancer cells able to metastasize?
- 1) Ongoing proliferation
- 2) Digestion of connective tissue by secretion of protease
- 3) Cell to cell adhesion is changed, become slippery and mobile
- 4) Increased mobility of individual tumor cells by angiogenesis (VEGF)
- 5) Able to survive circulation, attach and multiply at new site.
How is hereditary cancer different than non hereditary
- Occur in younger population
- Usually paired or multifocal
- Autosomal dominant trait
- Most are caused by mutated tumor suppressor genes
- Usually clustered or very rare forms of cancer.
Name key tumor suppressor genes
- BRCA-1, BRCA-2 - breast cancers,
- ras - Carcinomas and leukemias,
- p53 - Carcinomas
What does cancer do to patient
- Pressure in tissue
- High metabolic rate - nutritionla wasting
- Impaired immune response
- Invasion of tissue
- Destruction of tissue (Metastasis)
What are some causes of cancer
- DNA alterations - point mutations, translocations,
- Viral infection - retrovirus - HPV, Epstein Barr, Hep B, HTLV