Digestive System

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jhermanson
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17544
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Digestive System
Updated:
2010-05-03 21:01:25
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anatomy
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Anat 3611
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  1. hollow tube that wind through the body
    alimentary canal or gi tract
  2. The GI tract includes (7):
    mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, SI, LI and anus
  3. The accessory digestive organs include:
    teeth, tongue, gallbladder, salivary glands, liver and pancreas
  4. __________ organs assist in the digestion of food material, but are not necessarily required.
    accessory
  5. The purpose of the digestive system is to acquire _______ and __________.
    nutrients and water
  6. T/F Food never enters the body.
    True! it remains outside the body but passes through it
  7. Alcohol is absorbed through the __________
    stomach
  8. nutrients are absorbed through the ____________-
    small intestines
  9. water, electrolytes and vitamins are absorbed by the ______________
    large intestines
  10. Absorbed nutrients are passed into _______ of the digestive system and then go into the _________.
    veins, liver
  11. Fats are absorbed through the small intestine and passed into the lymphatic system through a
    lacteal duct
  12. fats will eventuall enter into the ______________ system
    circulatory
  13. The ___________ colon is a storage site for feces.
    sigmoid
  14. There are 6 essential food-processing activities of the Digestive system:
    ingestion, propulsion, mechanical disgestion, chemical digestions, absoption, defecation
  15. Propultion = __________(party voluntary) and ______________ (involuntary movement of food)
    swallowing and peristalsis
  16. mechanical digestion = cheming, churning food in stomach and ___________. It occurs in the mouth, __________ and ___________.
    segmentation, stomach, SI
  17. CHemical disgestion = breakdown of food into molecules occurs in the _______, ____________, and _____________.
    mouth, stomach, SI
  18. Absorption= transporting nutrients/electrolyts/ water into __________; and fats into the ____________
    veins, lymphatics
  19. Defecation
    elimination of indigestible substances
  20. Peristalsis vs. Segmentation
    Peristalsis utilizes coordination of these muscles to propel food through lumen.

    Segmentation utilizes these muscles to mix rather than propel.
  21. The organization for the entire length of the GI tract it: (4)
    mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa or adventitia
  22. true epithelium+lamina propria+muscularis mucosae
    *epithelium is either stratified squamous or simple columnar
    mucosa
  23. contains arteries, veins, nerves, lymphatics and sometimes mucus glands
    submucosa
  24. a layer of smooth muscle (muscularis)
    muscularis externa
  25. a layer of mesothelium
    serosa or adventitia
  26. Enteric Nervous plexes
    • independent control of digestion
    • made up of submucosal and myenteric layers
  27. Signals submucosal glands to secrete and muscularis mucosae to contract
    submucosal
  28. located between the ciruclar and longitudinal layers of muscularis externa; controls peristalsis and segmentation
    myenteric
  29. Ther are 4 mucosal types in the GI tract:
    protective, secretory, absorptive and absorptive/protective
  30. stratifies squamous epithelium found in the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus and anal canal
    protective mucosa
  31. simple columnar eithelium; specialized for secreting mucous; contains mucus-secreting cells and mucus-neck cells (stomach)
    secretory
  32. simple columnar cells; modified for absorbing nutrients (SI)
    absorptive
  33. simple columnar cells; for absorbing water/electrolytes switching to stratified squamous; absorptive cells in LI, stratifies squamous in anal canal
    absorptive/protective mucosa
  34. the line between the tooth and gum
    alveolar ridge
  35. the space between the lip and the alveolar ridge
    vestibule
  36. a fold
    frenulum

    • labial frenulum =lip to the gum
    • lingual frenulum = tongue to floor of oral cavity
  37. Salivary glands open into the oral cavity ___________ and ____________.
    under the tongue and through the cheek
  38. the ________ dangles down from the soft palate
    uvula
  39. the lips are formed from _______ _____, and the cheeks are formed by the _____________ muscle
    orbicularis oris, buccinator
  40. Lateral arches of the soft palate:
    • palatoglossal arch (palate to tongue)
    • palatopharyngeal arch (palate to pharynx)
    • *palatine tonsils are between the two arches
  41. The congue is covered with ___________.
    papillae ARE NOT TASTE BUDS
  42. A type of papillae that resembles pointed cones; most numerous; no tastebuds
    Filiform papilla
  43. A type of papillae that resemble mushrooms; possesses taste-buds
    fungiform papillae
  44. a papilla resembling a circular wall; possesses taste-buds
    circumvallate papillae
  45. separates the circumvallate papilla and lingual tonsil
    sulcus terminalis
  46. the opening between the oral cavity and the oropharynx
    palatoglossal arch - uvula - sulcus terminalis
    fauces
  47. ring of protective tonsils in the oropharnyx = palatine + lingual tonsils
    tonsilar ring
  48. produce and deposit saliva into oral cavity
    salivary glands
  49. salivary gland made of serous cells; secrete amylase and lysozymes; parotid duct passes through buccinator muscle
    parotid gland
  50. enzyme to digest carbohydrates
    amylase
  51. enzyme to lyse bacteria
    lysozyme
  52. glands composed of mucous cells; secrete mucus for lubrication; utilizes many ducts
    sublingual
  53. gland made of serous and mucous cells; usues the submandibular duct
    submandibular gland
  54. Types/numbers of teeth per side
    • 2 incisors
    • 1 canine
    • 2 premolars
    • 3 molars
  55. carries food material (bolus) from oral cavity to stomach
    esophagus
  56. muscularis externa:
    the upper 1/3 is _________ muscle
    the middle 1/3 is ___________
    the inferior 1/3 is __________ muscle
    • skeletal (voluntary)
    • mixed
    • smooth (involuntary)
  57. esophagus: The the lumen is collapsed except when
    food passes through it
  58. esophagus: the mucosa has a protective ____________ __________ epithelium
    stratified squamous
  59. esophagus: there are __________ glands in the submucosa
    *as the bolus passes the glands, they secrete mucus for lubrication
    mucous
  60. esophagus: the external layer is ________ not ___________.
    adventitia not serosa
  61. The esophagus passes through the diaphragm at the level of
    T10
  62. The muscularis externa ______ function as the sphincter of the esophagus
    MAY
  63. muscle fibers of the diaphragm serve as a functional sphincter muscle in the esophagus
    cardiac sphincter
  64. A site for chemical and mechanical digestion
    stomach
  65. Regions of the stomach (4)
    cardiac, fundus, body, pyloris
  66. a sphincter to prevent food from leaving the stomach
    pyloric sphincter
  67. Greater curvature
    greater omentum
  68. lesser curvature
    lesser omentum
  69. folds formed when stomach decreases in sizes
    rugae
  70. stomach: lined by modified simple columnar cells called "mucus-secreting cells"
    gastric pits
  71. T/F there are goblet cells in the stomach
    FALSE, some texts are in error
  72. secrete mucus and line the neck of the gastric pit
    mucus neck cells
  73. The mucus mucus protects the stomach from
    digesting itself
  74. The _______ and __________ of the stomach are called Gastric Pits
    fundus and body
  75. the gastric pits have ___________ glands
    gastric
  76. Types of cells in the gastric glands:
    parietal cells, chief cells, enteroendocrine cells
  77. What is the function of parietal cells?
    • secrete HCl and intrinsic factor (for absorption of Vitamin B12)
    • HCl makes pH=2 (hydrolyze food and kill microorganisms)
  78. Function of cheif cells?
    secrete Pepsin (protease) to breakdown proteins
  79. Function of Enteroendocrine cells
    secrete gastrin
  80. When food enteres the stomach, _________ is produced
    gastrin
  81. Gastrin stimulates Parietal cells to secrete
    HCl
  82. Has 3 layers of smooth muscle: innermost oblique, middle circular and outer longitudinal
    The muscularis externa
  83. The pyloric sphincter muscle is formed from a thinkened ______ ________ layer.
    middle circular layer
  84. A site for absorphtion of nutrients (carbs, proteins and fats)
    SI
  85. Three parts of the SI
    duodenum + jejunum + ileum
  86. the duodenum begins after the _______ ___________.
    pyloric sphincter
  87. the ileum ends at the ____________ _______.
    ileo-cecal valve
  88. Modified simple columnar cells for absorbing nutrients
    absorptive cells
  89. specialized ducts of the lymphatic system to carry fats; absorptive cells transfer the emulsified fats into lacteal ducts
    Lacteal vessels (or capillaries)
  90. Mucus secreting cells in the SI
    goblet cells
  91. aggregated lymphoid nodules
    (lymphoid tissue that appears as macroscopic white patches - only in the SI)
    Peyer's patches
  92. The muscularis externa has 2 layers of smooth muscle
    • -inner circular
    • -outer longitudinal
  93. The surface of the lumen has modifications to increase surface area for absorption such as:
    plica circularis, villi, microvili,crypts, and paneth cells
  94. Thinkened areas of submucosa
    plica circularis
  95. macroscopic finger-like projections of the mucosa
    villi
  96. microscopic folds on apical surface of cells
    microvilli
  97. located in SI between adjacent villi
    crypts (of lieberkeuhn)
  98. Located at he base of crypts; secrete lysozymes to lyse bacteria
    Paneth cells
  99. Mucus secreting cells in the submucosa of the duodenum specifically
    Brunner's glands
  100. Food material entering duodenum stimulates the secretion of cholecystokinin and secretin
    enteroendocrine cells
  101. Signals the gallbladder to contract and release bile into the duodenum
    Cholecystokinin (CCK)
  102. Stimulates the pancrease to secrete digestive juices and bicarbonate into duodenum
    Secretin

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