AN SC 310 - 8

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ebacker
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175446
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AN SC 310 - 8
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2012-10-04 00:50:51
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AN SC 310
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Lecture 8 - The Nervous System: CNS
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  1. What percentage of the CNS is composed of glia?
    90%
  2. What are the 5 types of glial cells?
    • Astrocyte
    • Ependymal cells (line cavities)
    • Microglia (phagocytes)
    • Oligodendrocytes (myelin)
    • Schwann cells (myelin)
  3. What are the functions of Astrocytes?
    • Develop neural connections
    • Modulate synaptic activity
    • Remove NT from synaptic cleft
    • Communicate to neurons through chemical messengers
    • Maintain normal electrolyte composition of ISF in CNS
    • Protect neurons against toxic substances/oxidative stress
  4. What are the functions of Microglia?
    • Protect CNS from foreign matter through phagocytosis
    • Protect CNS from oxidative stress
  5. What are the 3 physical support groups and their subgroups of the CNS?
    Bone - cranium, vertebrae

    Meninges - dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater

    CSF
  6. What are the properties of CSF?
    • Clear watery fluid bathing the CNS
    • Secreted by ependymal cells of the choroid plexus
    • Cushions brain
    • Maintains stable ISF
  7. What are the properties of CSF production?
    Total volume of CSF = 125-150 mL

    Choroid plexus produces 400 -500 mL/day

    Recycled 3 times/day
  8. What is significant about the blood supply to the CNS?
    CNS = 2% of body weight, receives 15% of blood supply

    • Brain uses 20% of oxygen, 50% of glucose
    • No glycogen stores
  9. What is the blood-brain barrier?
    Special anatomy of CNS capillaries which limit exchange btwn blood & ISF
  10. What are the structures associated with gray and white matter?
    • Gray = cell bodies, dendrites, axon terminals
    • White = axons
  11. What are the functions of the white matter in the brain?
    Projection fibers - cerebral cortex with lower levels of brain or spinal cord

    Association fibres - connect 2 areas of cerebral cortex on same side of brain

    Commissural fibres - connect same corical regions on 2 sides of brain

    Corpus collosum - primary location of commissural fibres
  12. What are the properties of the spinal cord?
    • Cylindrical nervous tissue
    • Surrounded by vertebral column
    • Spinal nerves branch off
  13. What are the 5 different types of spinal nerves from neck down?
    • Cervical - 8
    • Thoracic - 12
    • Lumbar - 5
    • Sacral - 5
    • Coccygeal - 1
  14. What is the funciton of gray matter in the spine?
    • Functional Halves
    • Dorsal - sensory functions
    • Ventral - motor functions
  15. What does the white matter form in the spine?
    Ascending and descending tracts
  16. What are the subdivisions of the brain?
    • Forebrain - cerebrum (cerebral cortex, basal nuclei). diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus)
    • Cerebellum
    • Brainstem - midbrain, pons, medulla
  17. What are the properties of the cerebellum?
    • Bilaterally symmetrical
    • Cortex and nuclei
    • Motor coordination and balance
    • Eye and body movements
  18. What is the function of the brainstem?
    • Connects forebrain and cerebellum to spinal cord
    • Processing center for 10 of the 12 cranial nerves
    • Reticular formation
  19. What are the properties of the Cerebral Cortex?
    • Outermost portion of cerebrum
    • Thin convoluted layer of gray matter
    • Highest level of neural processing (perception of environment, ides, recall, command body movement)
  20. What are the physical characteristics of the cerebral cortex?
    • Gyri - ridges
    • Sulci - grooves
    • Layers
    • Lobes - frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal
  21. Where is the primary motor cortex located?
    Frontal lobe
  22. Where is the somatosensory cortex located?
    Parietal cortex
  23. What does brain lateralization mean?
    • Sensory and motor pathways cross
    • R brain perceives/controls L input/muscles
    • L brain perceives/controls R input/muscles
  24. What do the R and L brain specialize in?
    • R - creativity, spatial perception
    • L - logic, analytical abilities, language
  25. What are the 4 basal nuclei structures?
    • Globus pallidus
    • Caudate
    • Putamen
    • Claustrum
  26. What are the functions of the basal nuclei?
    • Inhibit unwanted movements
    • Select purposeful movements
    • Postural support
  27. What is the function of the thalamus?
    • Integrate sensory and motor info
    • Sensory relay to cortex
  28. What is the function of the hypothalamus?
    • Food intake
    • Thermoregulation
    • Link btwn nervouse and endocrine system
    • Circadian rhythms
  29. What are the structures of the Limbic System?
    • Amygdala
    • Hippocampus
    • Fornix
    • Cingulate gyrus
    • Portions of thalamus
    • Portions of hypothalamus
  30. What are the function of the limbic system?
    • Learning
    • Emotions
    • Behavior

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