Tech 201 ch 1

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Tech 201 ch 1
2012-10-04 01:27:13
Tech 201

Tech 201 Ch 1
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  1. What is the FLOW of civilization?
    • 1.Food production
    • 2.Labor Specialization
    • 3.Order & Organization of Society
    • 4.Writing System
  2. True or false:
    Early civilizations were very autocratic with a hierarchical social structure
  3. What are the 3 types of writing systems?
    • Logograms
    • Syllaberies
    • Alphabet
  4. What is a logoram?
    symbol represents a consonant, symbol or entire word
  5. What is a Syllabarie?
    symbol represents a syllable
  6. What is an Alphabet?
    symbol  represents a sound
  7. The following are examples of which type of writing system:
    –Chinese characters
    –Egyptian hieroglyphs
    –Sumerian cuneiform
    –Symbols: %, $, +
  8. The following are examples of which type of writing system:
    –Text for blind readers
    –Japanese script
  9. The following are examples of which type of writing system:
    Roman, Greek, Cyrillic alphabets
  10. What was writing invented for?
    • 1.Easier preservation of information
    • 2. Religion•Egyptians
    • 3. Commerce•Sumerians
    • 4. History, culture and science•Greeks•Romans
  11. Why are civilizations often along rivers?
    • •Water & its fish provide sustenance
    • •Supports farming
    • •Facilitates trade & communication
  12. What is “Homo-Faber”?
    Benjamin Franklin called man homo-faber, or “a tool-making animal”
  13. What is monotheism?
    Belief in one god.
  14. What is polytheism?
    Worship of many gods (heroes, ancestors, animals, nature spirits, etc.)
  15. What is henotheism?
    Belief in many gods, but worship of one god.
  16. What is Panentheism?
    All things contain god.
  17. What is Pantheism?
    All things are god.
  18. What is Naturalism/Atheism/Secularism/Humanism?
    No god. Natural explanations for everything.
  19. The following are examples of what:
    ●Mesopotamia: An, Marduk, Ashur, El, and their councils (anthropomorphic)●Egypt: hundreds of gods including pharoahs (human, animal and hybrid)●Greeks, Etruscans, Romans: Heroes●Norse: Humans and animals●Hindus: hundreds of gods and goddesses.●Chinese folk religions: hundreds of gods and goddesses.
    Early pantheons
  20. What religious attitude is known as Exclusivism?
    Only one religion is valid and all others are wrong.
  21. What religious attitude is known as Inclusivism?
    One religion is valid or best, but god partially recognizes others.
  22. What religious attitude is known as Relativism?
    All beliefs are equally valid and god recognizes all of them.
  23. What religous attitude is pluralism?
    A single unknowable truth exists, so god accepts all “good” religions.
  24. ●Polytheistic: worshipped multiple gods.●Inclusivistic: tolerant of other religions.●Anthropomorphic/animistic: Saw gods in terms of humans or nature.●Mythological: Stories explained why things are as they are.●Ritualistic: rites (sacrifices, feasts) used to gain favors, re-enact sacred events, etc.●Theocratic: rulers were divine.
    Early belief tendencies
  25. Goverment where One person has absolute power (despotism).
  26. Type of government where A king /queen control the distribution of power in the kingdom at their discretion.
  27. Type of government where Political power is vested in a few individuals, who usually pass power by a hereditary system.
  28. Type of goverment where Voting citizens elect representatives who make laws. Also known as representative democracy.
  29. Type of government where Citizens directly vote in lawmaking (a direct democracy).
  30. Type of governement where A decentralized grassroots participatory system of free associations and institutions.
  31. Cultural evolution theory in which (19th century) all cultures move through the same stages of civilization advancement.
    Unilinear theory
  32. Cultural evolution theory where cultures take different routes in their advancement.
    Multilinear theory
  33. Cultural evolution theory where civilizations are like organisms in that they are born, mature, and die
    Cyclical theory
  34. What are Jared Diamond’s 4 reasons for the collapse of a civilization?
    • 1.failure to anticipate a problem
    • 2.failure to perceive it once it has arisen
    • 3.failure to attempt to solve it after it has been perceived
    • 4.and failure to succeed in attempts to solve it.