Chem exam 1

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asfheaton
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175469
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Chem exam 1
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2012-10-05 03:28:44
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Chemistry 108
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Chemistry 108
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  1. What is alpha decay
    When a nucleus is too heavy, it fires out an alpha particle, consisting of two neutrons and two protons. Its Atomic number is 2, its atomic mass is four.
  2. What is an Atom
    Smallest unit of an element
  3. What is a molecule
    group of atoms bonded together
  4. What is a compound
    Two different elements bonded together
  5. What is the most prevalant source of background radiation
    Rn-222
  6. What are the five types of energy
    • Mechanical
    • Electrical
    • Chemical
    • Thermal
    • Electromagnetic
  7. What is an element
    Pure chemical substance consisting of one type of atom
  8. What gases are in the air we breathe
    • Nitrogen
    • Oxygen
    • Water
    • C02
    • Traces of other gases
  9. Average background radiation a person gets in a year
    .360 REM
  10. What is a REM
    Measure of the amount of damage done to tissue. Stands for Roentgen Equivalent Man.
  11. What is a fatal dose of REM
    Greater then 500
  12. What is a curie
    • Measure of the radiation in a sample.
    • Equivalent to number of decays a second from one gram of radium.
  13. What is a RAD
    Measure of energy absorbed by tissue. Stands for radiation absorbed dose. Equal to the absorbtion of .01 joules of energy per kg of tissue.
  14. What does Cs-137 do to the body
    Mimics potassium and sodium, ingested through consumption of food and water.
  15. What does I-131 do to the body
    Collects in the thyroid gland, causes thyroid cancer and graves disease.
  16. What does Sr-90 do to the body
    Mimics calcium in the body, gathers in the bones.
  17. What is critical mass
    The amount of fissionable fuel required to start a chain reaction.
  18. What is the formula for fission?
    E=MC^2 ( mass is in KG)
  19. What is half life?
    The amount of time it takes for 50% of the atoms in a sample to decay.
  20. What are free radicals?
    Chemicals with an unpaired electron, highly reactive.
  21. What is the electromagnetic spectrum?
    Gamma>Xray>Visible light>Infra-red>Microwave>Radio
  22. How do you write a chemical formula for ionic compounds?
    • 1) Determine charges
    • 2)Write the positive ion first, then the negative
    • 3)Balance charges
    • 4)Write as subscripts.
  23. What is an ionic compound
    Results when metals react with non-metals
  24. What is Po-210
    It is a decay product of Apatite, an ingredient used in fertilizer for tobacco, Po-210 causes cancer.
  25. What is an Isotope
    Different atomic weights of the same element.
  26. What does radioactive mean?
    When the nucleus of an atom is unstable.
  27. What is the difference between a physical and chemical change?
    A physical change only involves one compound or element, and it changes from a gas to a liquid or a solid. A chemical change is when the compound or element changes into another, or gives off energy.
  28. What is a transuranium element?
    Chemical elements with numbers greater then 92, none of them are found normally in nature, but are products of decay.
  29. When water is hit with ionizing radiation what happens?
    H20 + (ionizing radiation) = H20(+) + e(-)
  30. What element is H?
    H is Hydrogen
  31. What element is Li
    Li is Lithium
  32. What element is Na
    Na is Sodium
  33. What element is Mg
    Mg is Magnesium
  34. What element is K
    K is potassium
  35. What element is Ca
    Ca is Calcium
  36. What element is Sr
    Strontium
  37. What element is Cs
    Cs is Cesium
  38. What element is Ba
    Ba is Barium
  39. What element is Ra
    Ra is Radium
  40. What element is Fe
    Fe is Iron
  41. What element is Te
    Te is Tellurium
  42. What element is Co
    Co is Cobalt
  43. What element is Ni
    Nickel
  44. What element is Cu
    Cu is Copper
  45. What element is Zn
    Zn is Zinc
  46. What element is Ag
    Ag is silver
  47. What element is Cd
    Cd is Cadmium
  48. What element is Au
    Au is gold
  49. What element is Hg
    Hg is Mercury
  50. What element is Al
    Al is Aluminum
  51. What element is C
    C is Carbon
  52. What element is Pb
    Pb is Lead
  53. What element is N
    N is Nitrogen
  54. What element is P
    P is Phosphorus
  55. What element is Po
    Po is Polonium
  56. What element is O
    O is Oxygen
  57. What element is S
    Sulfur
  58. What element is F
    F is Flouride
  59. What element is Cl
    Cl is Chlorine
  60. What element is Br
    Br is Bromine
  61. What element is I
    I is Iodine
  62. What element is He
    Helium
  63. What element is Ne
    Ne is Neon
  64. What element is Ar
    Ar is Argon
  65. What element is Rn
    Rn is Radon
  66. What element is Th
    Thorium
  67. What element is U
    Uranium
  68. What element is Np
    Neptunium
  69. What element is Pu
    Plutonium
  70. How do you name ionic compounds?
    If it has one element it gets an -ide ending, if it is polyatomic it gets an -ate ending. Exception being OH which is always hydroxide and NH4 which is always ammonium.
  71. What is ionizing radiation
    Ionising (or ionizing) radiation is radiation composed of particles that individually carry enough energy to liberate an electron from an atom or molecule
  72. What happens when water is hit with ionizing radiation?
    H20 > Ion Radiation > H20+ and E-, when this pairs with other water molecules it becomes H30 and *OH.
  73. What is a chemical formula?
    The long description of a chemical compound (ie, water = h20)
  74. What is a chemical equation?
    When products are apart on the left hand side of the equal sign and then are balanced and together on the right.
  75. What electromagnetic radiation is ionizing?
    UV, X-ray, Gamma Ray
  76. Which electromagnetic radiation is not ionizing?
    Visible, IR, Microwave, Radio
  77. How does a geiger counter work?
    A tube is filled with argon gas which is then ionized by the radiation, and results in the conducting of electricity through the tube and the wire that runs in between it.
  78. What is the difference between nuclear radiation and electromagnetic radiation?
    Nuclear radiation begins from the nucleus, while electromagnetic radiation mostly comes from outer space.
  79. What is the last element in the U-238 Decay chain?
    Lead(PB)
  80. Why are fission products beta emitters?
    Because they are radioactive(unstable) and need to reduce the amount of neutrons to become stable, which is done in the form of beta decay.

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