“wisest man” cause he knew that he didn’t know, accused of corrupting youth of Athens and sentenced to drinking poisonous Hemlock; “noblest man who ever lived”; was the anti-philosopher
he believed that the way to attain wisdom was by understanding oneselfhe believed truth had to be discoveredhe felt that he wasn’t wisehe knew that he didn’t know all things, which made him the wisest manHe disliked hypocrisy so he came up with the dialectic method: repeatedly opposing questions of a critical nature to the position of the citizen and then questioning the answers given. The point was to show that not all people understood the concept at the heart of their profession.
men who considered themselves the great thinkers of Socrates day, taught science and philosophy for $, Socrates felt they taught knowledge but not thinking, modified their teachings to please others,
Socrates’ pupil, wrote most of what we know about Socrates, believed in the Form (spiritual)
his purpose was to shift people’s thinking to the deeper meanings of life, especially ethics and reality
you cannot make something perfectly or exactly in this world, you can only do something perfect or exact in theory. The form of something is constant and unchanging which is different than what is real because what is real is constantly changing. The theoretical or mental is more real than the physical. Material world is an illusion. Forms are best understood by the mind---therefore he encouraged study of philosophy.
Founded the “Academy”, first university (“Let no one ignorant of geometry enter here”)
Allegory of cave: those who can understand the real Forms should be leaders of all people because only they can understand reality.
philosophers are the leaders that understand the Formchildren would be separated based on their ability to think
Plato's the republic
Plato’s pupil, but didn’t agree wholly with Plato, believed both spiritual and physical were important.
believed matter and Form are most important thingsthings had the potential to be changedanimate and inanimate--basis of our modern biological class system NATURAL sciences, earthly world, true nature could be found through the SENSORY observations
scientific method: 4 questions
Material: What is it made of? Chemical analysis.
Efficient: What caused it? birth? look at clues that would explain this.
Formal: What is its essence? characteristics, all about information
Purpose: What is its purpose? Rely on a set of standards, describe its effects
5th material (heaven, moon, sun, planets, stars); others are Earth, Fire, Water, Air
3 types of Gov't according to aristotle:
Rule by one man: good =monarchy; bad = tyranny
Rule by a few: good = aristocracy; bad = oligarchy
Rule by many: good = constitution guides people; bad = each person action on their own without a general guide
Aristotle's 3 types of happiness:
Pleasure based (goal of vulgar man)
Honor based (goal of cultivated man)
Principles of truth and virtue based (best comes from contemplation and philosophy)