Facts of Life: Test 1 (CH 1-4)

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Facts of Life: Test 1 (CH 1-4)
2012-10-04 03:10:58

Facts of Life: Test 1 (CH 1-4)
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  1. A scientific hypothesis is
    An educated guess explaining an observation
  2. A scientific theory is
    A major explanation that has been supported by many and diverse lines of evidence
  3. Conducting controlled, repeated manipulations of nature results in
    Rejection of hypothesis
  4. Which variable is manipulated by the experimenter in a controlled experiment?
    Independent variable
  5. What is shared by all life-forms on Earth?
    Using DNA for reproduction
  6. Natural selection
    Tends to make a whole population better adapted to its surroundings
  7. An organ in the human body
    Has a particular shape and unique location in the body
  8. The biome
    Extends over large regions of Earth that share similar climate and plant communities
  9. Correlation is not causation
    Just because something happens together does not mean that it is related.
  10. Biological hierarchy
    •  (cells → tissues → organs → individual)           
    • Smallest to largest   
    • Atom    
    • Molecule 
    • Cell      
    • Tissue
    • Organ
    • Organ system
    • Individual
    • Population
    • Community
    • Ecosystem
    • Biome
    • Biosphere
  11. Strong correlation between the independent variable and the dependent variable are results of?
    • A Scientific Experiment            
    • Fertilizer = dependent, Growth = independent
  12. Characteristics of a control group such as high mortality tells you about
    The impact of the variable, such as low mortality
  13. Taking a prescription medicine models what step in the scientific method?
  14. What activities are stimulated by the germ theory?
    Precautions to prevent disease-causing pathogens from spreading from an infected individual to an uninfected individual. 
  15. The cell is the most basic form of?
    Biology [LIFE]
  16. What separates the outside environment by a flexible membrane?
    Cell Plasma Membrane
  17. What is evidence for the common ancestor of life?
    Hypothesis supported by the observation that all cells in all living organisms use DNA to direct their structure, function, & behavior?
  18. Which organisms make their own energy?
  19. Which organisms obtain their energy from other organism?
  20. What is created by the interactions of 2 or more populations?
  21. What is the advantage of mulitcellularity?
    Specialized cells that can do a given job better than a general purpose cell.
  22. An organ is composed of?
    2 or more tissues
  23. The biosphere includes?
    All life forms & the spaces where they live(earth)
  24. What cannot be tested by the scientific method?
    Questions about topics other than the natural world.
  25. What observations support the hypothesis that Pfiesteria kills fish?
    A predicted increase in Pfiesteria populations coincided with a fish die-off
  26. Animals and fungi are more closely related to each other than either is to plants.
  27. A node (in the evolutionary tree) represents?
    The most recent common ancestor of two or more descendantslineages (close relation)
  28. What are the 3 domains?
    Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
  29. What are the 6 kingdoms?
    Bacteria, Archaea, Protista, Plantae, Fungi, Animalia
  30. Most bacteria are smaller than the average eukaryotic cell.
  31. Are Archeans found in the human body?
  32. What is quorum sensing?
    It enables bacteria to communicate & form bio films (slime).
  33. Viruses lack the ability to acquire energy independently
  34. Is a phylum more broader & more inclusive category than order?
    Yes, according to the Linnaean system ofclassification.
  35. A common ancestor is based on what diagram?
    The evolutionary tree.
  36. What is used to construct the evolutionary tree?
    Shared characteristics believed to have arisen in a common ancestor (features in common with their ancestors)
  37. Animalia and Fungi belong to what domain?
  38. What has more species than Class but less than Kingdom?
  39. What is the Linnaean system of classification?
    • Biggest to Smallest                       
    • Kingdom                       
    • Phylum                       
    • Class                       
    • Order                       
    • Family                       
    • Genus                       
    • Species
  40. What lacks a nucleus that encloses the cell’s DNA?
  41. Prokaryote cells with lipid membranes are called?
    Archaea cells
  42. Bacterica and Archaea are considered the most successful inhabitants of the planet because of?
    Their adaptations that allow them to live in anyenvironment
  43. Halophiles (Archae) love what compound?
  44. What can survive in extremely hot climates (hot geysers)?
  45. What shapes do bacteria cells have?
    Rod, Sphere, or Corkscrew
  46. What organism can provide the nitrate necessary for plant nutrition?
    Bacteria (can also be used to clean up oilspills)
  47. What organism inserts it’s genetic material (RNA) into a host cell’s DNA?
  48. How do bacteria reproduce?
    Binary Fission
  49. How are Eukaryotes different from Prokaryotes?
    Eukaryotes have a nucleus
  50. What evolutionary innovation enables larger cell size?
    Subcellular compartmentalization.
  51. What group contains only multicelluar species?
    Bryophytes (ferns)
  52. What group consists entirely of autotrophic species?
  53. What kingdom is more diverse in modes of nutrition and life cycle characteristics than fungi are?
  54. Fungi grow by extending their?
  55. What evolutionary innovation enabled plants to become taller?
  56. Why are mycorrhizal fungi beneficial to plants?
    Because they help in absorbing minerals.
  57. Do Prokaryotes sexually reproduce?
    No, they acquire genetic information through lateral (or horizontal) gene transfer.
  58. What are red tides?
    A population explosion of photosynthetic plankton (usually dinoflagellates)
  59. Why are Fungi heterotrophs?
    They are absorptive heterotrophs with cells ways that have chitin & store glycogen
  60. How do plants obtain/retain water & fight gravity to grow taller?
    • Root systems & waxy covering (cuticle)
    • lignin to strengthen cell walls to grow taller
  61. What is a lichen?
    • A mutualistic association between photosynthetic microbes and fungi (green alga & cyanobacterium)
    • has no protective sheath or system to excrete waste/toxic substance
  62. Protista, Plante, and Fungi all have what in common?
    They are all Eukaryotes
  63. What are the most ancient Eukaryotic fossils?
    Red algae fossils
  64. How do Eukaryotes reproduce?
    Through sexual reproduction which gives greater genetic variability between parents & offspring
  65. How are multicellular organisms unique?
    Each specialized cell uses genes that are not expressed in other cells.
  66. What kingdom contains organisms that resemble animals/plants/fungi?
  67. What plant was the first to colonize land &does not have roots?
  68. What is necessary for photosynthesis?
    Carbon dioxide, water, and light energy
  69. What was the first kingdom to conquer land?
  70. What is the chief constituent of wood that bindsto cellulose fibers & hardens/strengthens the cell walls of plants to allowthem to extend upward?
  71. Which kingdoms share the ability to photosynthesize?
    Bacteria & Plants
  72. Which 2 plants groups provide their embryos with stored food that can support growth before photosynthesis beings?
    Gymnosperms & Angiosperms
  73. What is the pollination of a carpel?
    The arrival of the pollen grain on the female flower reproductive part (ovary)
  74. Which flowers rely on nocturnal pollinators (bats)?
    Flowers that only open at night & closed during the day
  75. What part of the mushroom is larger than the above ground fruiting body (hyphae)?
    Underground mycelium (main body –strands)
  76. What is mixotroph?
    An organism that posses the ability to switch from photoautrotrophy to chemoheterotrophy.
  77. What specialized plant tissue transports water & dissolved nutrients?
  78. Which animal group is the most abundant in number of individuals and number of species?
  79. Animals are:
    Ingestive heterotrophs, have at least some specialized cell types & most animal cells are attached to an extracellular matrix.
  80. What structure maintains tissue integrity/communication?
    The fiber-rich extracellular matrix (which their cells can attach)
  81. What group was the first to take to the air?
    Certain reptiles
  82. The mouth does not develop from the blastopore in what organism?
    The deuterostome
  83. Segmentation is beneficial to arthropods because:
    It facilitates specialization among body parts
  84. Sponges are thought to lack true ____?
  85. Chordates are distinguished from all other animals in that all of them have ________?
    A dorsal nerve chord & post-anal tail
  86. What contains membranes that facilitate gas exchange?
    An amniotic egg
  87. What challenges did insects face when the colonized land? And what evolutionary innovation did they develop in response?
    Risked desiccation (drying out) & needed mechanical reinforcement of the body; develop chitin-reinforced exoskeleton to solve both problems.
  88. What is the evolutionary significance of the segmentation of the animal body?
    It paved the way for the specialization of body segments & the appendages that arise from them.  It propelled adaptation.
  89. What tissue types and organ systems enable locomotion in animals?
    Muscle & nerve tissues
  90. What is the adaptive vale of locomotion?
    Helps an animal capture prey, eat prey, avoid being captured, attract mates, care for young & migrate to new habitats.  
  91. What evolutionary innovations adapted birds for flight?
    Hollow bones, toothless beaks, reduced internal organs, & feathers
  92. How are mammals and birds similar?
    They both are endotherms and homeotherms
  93. How do metamorphosis & incomplete metamorphosis differ?
    Incomplete metamorphosis is gradual while metamorphosis is dramatic.
  94. What is the adaptive rationale for complete metamorphosis?
    Two different modes of living allow greater variety & quantity of resources
  95. What unique adaptations do mammals possess for coping with cold and hot environments?
    • Most mammals are endotherms & homeotherms (they use metabolic energy to generate heat & maintain a near constant body temperature)
    • they can trap body heat with hair
    • can raise hair to trap even more heat 
    • have sweat glands
  96. How do female monotremes, marsupials, and eutherians differ in nurturing their young?
    • Monotremes lay eggs, hatch undeveloped
    • Marsupials give birth to somewhat developed young, further developed in pouch
    • Eutherians have longer gestation, giving birth to well developed young           
  97. What is the developmental sequence after fertilization?
    Zygote → Blastula → Gastrula
  98. What are the 3 germ layers?
    • Ectoderm – outer surface (outer tissues/nervous)
    • Endoderm – innermost (digestive)
    • Mesoderm – near bloastopore (muscle & reproductive structures)
  99. All _______derive the anus from the blastopore?
  100. What system develops from the endoderm?
    Digestive system
  101. What is Cephalization?
    A  body plan with anterior location of feeding and sensory structures
  102. How do parasites actively sense potential hostsor mates & move toward them?
    The nervous system in communication with the muscular system
  103. What animal has a circulatory system & digestive system, but lacks a respiratory system?
    The annelid EARTHWORM (segmentation)
  104. What do mollusks contribute to marine ecosystems?
  105. What mollusk’s predatory lifestyle probably contributed to extraordinary intellectual development?
  106. What phylum & class does the centipede belong to?
    Arthropods & myriapods
  107. What is the carbohydrate found in an arthropod’s exoskeleton?
  108. What do humans, birds, and frogs all have in common?
    We’re all vertebrates
  109. Why have mammals been successful at reproduction?
    The placenta for supporting growth of the embryo & the mammary gland for nourishing their young
  110. Which species innovated the amniotic egg?
  111. The amniotic egg reduces dependency on what environment?
  112. What structure initially insulated dinosaurs?