Microbiology Chapter 14 - Infection, Infectious Disease, and Epidemiology

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Microbiology Chapter 14 - Infection, Infectious Disease, and Epidemiology
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2012-10-04 03:11:22
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microbiology exam two
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infection, infectious disease, and epidemiology
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  1. Airborne transmission
    spread of pathogens to the respiratory mucous membranes of a new host via the air or in droplets carried more than 1 meter
  2. Avirulent
    Harmless
  3. Biofilms
    a slimy community of microbes growing on a surface
  4. Biological vector
    biting arthropod or other animal that transmits pathogens and serves as a host for the multiplication of the pathogen during some stage of the pathogen’s life cycle
  5. Bodily fluid transmission
    spread of pathogenic microorganisms via blood, urine, saliva, or other bodily fluids
  6. Carrier
    in human pathogenicity, continuous asymptomatic human source of infection
  7. Commensalism
    symbiotic relationship in which one member benefits without significantly affecting the other
  8. Contamination
    the presence of microorganisms in or on the body or other site
  9. Convalescence
    in the infectious disease process, final stage during which the patient recovers from the illness, and tissues and systems are repaired and returned to normal
  10. Decline
    in the infectious disease process, period in which the body gradually returns to normal as the patient’s immune response and any medical treatments vanquish the process
  11. Direct contact transmission
    spread of pathogens from one host to another involving body contact between the hosts
  12. Disease
    any adverse internal condition severe enough to interfere with normal body function
  13. Droplet transmission
    • spread of pathogens from one host to another via aerosols, which exit the body during exhaling, coughing, and sneezing and travel less than 1 meter
    • Endemic
    • in epidemiology, a disease that occurs at a relatively stable frequency within a given area or population
  14. Endotoxins
    potentially fatal toxin released from the cell wall of dead and dying Gram-negative bacteria
  15. Epidemic
    in epidemiology, a disease that occurs at a greater than normal frequency for a given area or population
  16. Epidemiology
    study of the occurrence, distribution, and spread of disease in humans
  17. Exotoxins
    toxin secreted by a pathogenic microorganism into its environment
  18. Fecal-oral infection
    spread of pathogenic microorganisms in feces to the mouth, such as results from drinking sewage-contaminated water
  19. Foodborne transmission
    spread of pathogenic microorganisms in or on foods that are poorly processed, undercooked, or improperly refrigerated
  20. Illness
    in the infectious disease process, the most severe stage, in which signs and symptoms are most evident
  21. Incidence
    the number of new cases of a disease in a given area or population during a given time
  22. Incubation period
    stage in infectious disease process between infection and occurrence of the first symptoms or signs of disease
  23. Indirect contact transmission
    spread of pathogens from one host to another via inanimate objects called fomites
  24. Infection
    successful invasion of the body by a pathogenic microorganism
  25. Microbial antagonism
    (microbial competition) normal condition in which established microbiota use up available nutrients and space, reducing the ability of arriving pathogens to colonize
  26. Morbidity
    any change from a state of health
  27. Mutualism
    symbiotic relationship in which both members benefit from their interaction
  28. Normal microbiota
    microorganisms that colonize the surfaces of the human body without normally causing diseasethey may be resistant or transient
  29. Nosocomial infection
    a disease acquired in a healthcare facility
  30. Opportunistic pathogens
    microorganisms that cause disease when the immune system is suppressed, when microbial antagonism is reduced, or when introduce into an abnormal area of the body
  31. Pandemic
    the occurrence of an epidemic on more than one continent simultaneously
  32. Parasitism
    symbiotic relationship in which one organism derives benefit while harming, or even killing, its host.
  33. Pathogen
    a microorganism capable of causing disease
  34. Pathogenicity
    a microorganism’s ability to cause disease
  35. Portal of entry
    entrance site of pathogenic microorganisms, including the skin, mucous membranes, and placenta
  36. Portals of exit
    exit site of pathogenic microorganisms, including the nose, mouth, and urethra
  37. Prevalence
    the total number of cases of a disease in a given area or population during a given period of time
  38. Prodromal period
    in the infectious disease process, the short stage of generalized, mild symptoms that precede illness
  39. Reservoir of infection
    living or nonliving continuous source of infectious disease
  40. Resident microbiota
    remain a part of the normal microbiota of a person throughout life
  41. Signs
    in pathology, objective manifestations of a disease that can be observed or measured by others
  42. Sporadic
    a disease that occurs only in a few scattered cases within a given area or population during a given period of time
  43. Symbiosis
    a continuum of close associations between two or more organisms that ranges from mutually beneficial to associations in which one member damages the other member
  44. Symptoms
    subjective characteristics of a disease that can be felt by the patient alone
  45. Syndrome
    a group of symptoms, signs, and diseases that collectively characterizes a particular abnormal condition
  46. Toxemia
    presence in the blood of poisons called toxins
  47. Transient microbiota
    remain in the body for only a few hours, days, or months before disappearing
  48. Vector
    an animal (typically an arthropod) that transmits disease from one host to another
  49. Virulence
    a measure of pathogenicity
  50. Waterborne transmission
    spread of pathogenetic microorganisms via water
  51. Zoonoses
    diseases that are naturally spread from usual animal host to humans

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