Terrorism Response and Disaster Management

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Author:
jelliott
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175503
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Terrorism Response and Disaster Management
Updated:
2012-10-06 10:51:59
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EMT
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AAOS AEMT Ch 40
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  1. Terrorism that is carried out by people in a country other than their own.
    • International Terrorism
    • Cross-Border Terrorism
  2. Any agent designed to bring about mass death, caualties, and/or massive damage to property and infrastructure.
    • Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)
    • Weapons of Mass Casualty (WMC)
  3. What is the number one indicator of a terrorist attack?
    Multiple pt. c/o the same s/s
  4. Lung Tissue
    Parenchyma
  5. Define B-NICE
    • B - Biologic
    • N - Nuclear
    • I - Incendiary
    • C - Chemical
    • E - Explosive
  6. Define CBRNE
    • C - Chemical
    • B - Biologic
    • R - Radiologic
    • N - Nuclear
    • E - Explosive
  7. The creation of a weapon from a biologic agent generally found in nature and that causes disease.
    Weaponization
  8. Terrorism that is funded and/or supported by nations that hold close ties  terrorist groups.
    State-sponsored terrorism
  9. Name the levels of DHS Advisory System.
    • Severe (Red)
    • High (Orange)
    • Elevated (Yellow)
    • Guarded (Blue)
    • Low (Green)
  10. Term used to describe a chemical agent that will stay on a surface for long periods, usually longer than 24 hrs.
    • Persistent
    • Nonvolatile
  11. Term used to describe a chemical agent that will evaporate relatively fast when left on a surface in the optimal temperature range.
    • Volatile
    • Nonpersistent
  12. The manner by which a toxic substance enters the body.
    Route of Exposure
  13. An agent that enters the body through the respiratory tract is what kind of exposure hazard?
    Vapor Hazard
  14. A chemical agent for which the skin is the primary route of exposure is what kind of hazard?
    Contact Hazard
  15. Vesicants (Blister Agents)
    Primary Route of Exposure:  ???
    Damage:  ???
    • Primary Route of Exposure:  Skin
    • Damage:  Burn-like blisters on the skin and respiratory tract.  Causes most damage to the moist areas of the body; armpits, groin, and resp. tract.
  16. Sulfur Mustard
    Agent Type:  ???
    Military Designation: ???
    Physical Appearance:  ???
    Odor:  ???
    Route of Exposure:  ???
    Onset of Symptoms:  ???
    S/s:  ???
    Tx:  ???
    • Agent Type:  Chemical Agent - Vesicant
    • Military Designation:  H
    • Physical Appearance:  Brownish, yellowish oily substance.
    • Odor:  Garlic or mustard
    • Route of Exposure:  Skin and mucous membranes
    • Onset of Symptoms:  Cell damage within 1-2 minutes but no s/s for 4-6 hrs.
    • S/s:  Skin irritation, Large blisters, Irritated eyes
    • Tx:  ABCs, IV, Rapid transport to burn center (no antidote)
  17. A substance that mutates, damages, and changes the structure of DNA in the body's cells.
    Mutagen
  18. Lewisite
    Agent Type:  ???
    Military Designation:  ???
    Route of Exposure:  ???
    Onset of Symptoms:  ???
    S/s:  ???
    Tx:  ???
    • Agent Type:  Chemical Agent - Vesicant
    • Military Designation:  L
    • Route of Exposure:  Skin and mucous membranes
    • Onset of Sypmtoms:  Immediate
    • S/s:  Skin irritation, Intense skin pain, Large blisters, Grey discoloration of skin, Irritated eyes
    • Tx:  ABCs, IV, Rapid transport to burn center, British antidote (not carried by cililian EMS)
  19. Phosgene Oxime
    Agent Type:  ???
    Military Designation:  ???
    Route of Exposure:  ???
    Onset of Symptoms:  ???
    S/s:  ???
    Tx:  ???
    • Agent Type:  Chemical Agent - Vesicant
    • Military Designation:  CX
    • Route of Exposure:  Skin and mucous membranes
    • Onset of Sypmtoms:  Immediate
    • S/s:  Skin irritation, Intense skin pain, Large blister, Grey discoloration or skin, Irritated eyes
    • Tx:  ABCs, IV, Rapid transport to burn center (no antidote)
  20. Pulmonary Agents (Choking Agents)
    Primary Route of Exposure:  ???
    Damage:  ???
    • Primary Route of Exposure:  Respiratory Tract
    • Damages:  Damages the lung tissue and fluid leaks into the lungs, causing pulmonary edema.
  21. Chlorine
    Agent Type:  ???
    Military Designation:  ???
    Physical Appearance:  ???
    Odor:  ???
    Route of Exposure:  ???
    Onset of Symptoms:  ???
    S/s:  ???
    Tx:  ???
    • Agent Type:  Chemical Agent - Pulmonary Agent
    • Military Designation:  CL
    • Physical Appearance:  Green haze when released as a gas
    • Odor: Bleach
    • Route of Exposure:  Respiratory tract
    • Onset of Symptoms:  Immediate
    • S/s:  SOB, Chest tightness, hoarseness and stridor, gasping and coughing
    • Tx:  ABCs, O2,  IV, Rapid transport (no antidote)
  22. Phosgene
    Agent Type:  ???
    Military Designation:  ???
    Odor:  ???
    Route of Exposure:  ???
    Onset of Symptoms:  ???
    S/s:  ???
    Tx:  ???
    • Agent Type:  Chemical Agent - Pulmonary Agent
    • Military Designation:  CG
    • Odor:  Cut Grass
    • Route of Exposure:  Respiratory trat
    • Onset of Symptoms:  Delayed
    • S/s:  Nausea, Chest tightness, Severe cough, Dyspnea on exertion
    • Tx:  ABCs, O2, Rapid transport (No antidote)
  23. A class of chemical called organophosphates; they function by blocking an essential enzyme in the nervous system, which causes the body's organs to become overstimulated and burn out.
    Nerve Agents
  24. Early nerve agents that were developed by German scientists in the periord  WWI and into WWII.
    G Agents
  25. The emitting of an agent  exposure.
    Off gassing
  26. Sarin
    Agent Type:  ???
    Military Designation:  ???
    Odor:  ???
    Route of Exposure:  ???
    Onset of Symptoms:  ???
    S/s:  ???
    Tx:  ???
    • Agent Type:  Chemical Agent - Nerve Agent
    • Military Designation:  GB
    • Odor:  None
    • Route of Exposure:  Respiratory tract
    • Onset of Symptoms:  Immediate
    • S/s:  SLUDGEM / DUMBELS
    • Tx:  ABCs, Mark 1 NAAK
  27. Soman
    Agent Type:  ???
    Military Designation:  ???
    Odor:  ???
    Route of Exposure:  ???
    Onset of Symptoms:  ???
    S/s:  ???
    Tx:  ???
    • Agent Type:  Chemical Agent - Nerve Agent
    • Military Designation:  GD
    • Odor:  Fruity
    • Route of Exposure:  Skin and respiratory tract
    • Onset of Symptoms:  Immediate
    • S/s:  SLUDGEM / DUMBELS
    • Tx:  ABCs, Mark 1 NAAK
  28. The process by which the temporary bond between the organophophate and the acetylcholinesterase undergoes hydrolysis, resulting in a permanent covalent bond.
    Aging
  29. Tabun
    Agent Type:  ???
    Military Designation:  ???
    Odor:  ???
    Route of Exposure:  ???
    Onset of Symptoms:  ???
    S/s:  ???
    Tx:  ???
    • Agent Type:  Chemical Agent - Nerve Agent
    • Military Designation:  GA
    • Odor:  Fruity
    • Route of Exposure:  Skin and respiratory tract
    • Onset of Symptoms:  Immediate
    • S/s:  SLUDGEM / DUMBELS
    • Tx:  ABCs, Mark 1 NAAK
  30. V Agent
    Agent Type:  ???
    Military Designation:  ???
    Physical Appearance:  ???
    Odor:  ???
    Route of Exposure:  ???
    Onset of Symptoms:  ???
    S/s:  ???
    Tx:  ???
    • Agent Type:  Chemical Agent - Nerve Agent
    • Military Designation:  VX
    • Physical Appearance:  Clear, oily, like baby oil
    • Odor:  None
    • Route of Exposure:  Skin
    • Onset of Symptoms:  Immediate
    • S/s:  SLUDGEM / DUMBELS
    • Tx:  ABCs, Mark 1 NAAK
  31. Define SLUDGEM
    • S - Salivation, Sweating
    • L - Lacrimation
    • U - Urination
    • D - Defecation, Drooling, Diarrhea
    • G - Gastric upset and cramps
    • E - Emesis
    • M - Muscle twitching, Miosis
  32. Define DUMBELS
    • D - Diarrhea
    • U - Urination
    • M - Miosis
    • B - Bradycardia, Bronchospasm
    • E - Emesis
    • L - Lacrimation
    • S - Seizures, Salivation, Sweating
  33. Excessive Tearing
    Lacrimation
  34. Pinpoint Pupils
    Miosis
  35. A nerve agent antidote kit containing two auto-injectors containing 2mg atropine and 600mg pralidoxime chloride (2PAM)
    Mark 1 Nerve Agent Antidote Kit (NAAK)
  36. Cyanide (Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanogen Chloride)
    Agent Type:  ???
    Military Designation:  ???
    Physical Appearance:  ???
    Odor:  ???
    Route of Exposure:  ???
    Onset of Symptoms:  ???
    S/s:  ???
    Tx:  ???
    • Agent Type:  Chemical Agent - Metabolic Agent
    • Military Designation:  Hydrogen Cyanide (AC) and Cyanogen Chloride (CK)
    • Physical Appearance:  Colorless Gas
    • Odor:  Almonds
    • Route of Exposure:  Respiratory tract
    • Onset of Symptoms:  Immediate
    • S/s:  N/V, SOB, Tachypnea, Flushed skin, Tachycardia, AMS, Seizures, Coma, Apnea, Cardiac Arrest
    • Tx:  ABCs, IV, Rapid transport
  37. An agent that affects the body's ability to use oxygen.
    Cyanide
  38. The means by which a terrorist will spread a disease.
    Dissemination
  39. The period of time from a person being exposed to a disease to the time when symptoms being.
    Incubation
  40. An infectious disease that can be transmitted to another.
    • Contagious Disease
    • Communicable Disease
  41. Germs that require a living host to multiply and survive.
    Viruses
  42. Smallpox
    Agent Type:  ???
    Route of Exposure:  ???
    S/s:  ???
    Tx:  ???
    • Agent Type:  Biologic Agent - Virus
    • Route of Exposure:  Inhalation or contact  blisters
    • S/s:  Severe fever, malaise, body aches, headaches, small blisters, bleeding of the skin and mucous membranes
    • Tx:  BSI, ABCs, no specific Tx, vaccine available
  43. Viral Hemmorrhagic Fevers (VHF)
    Agent Type:  ???
    Route of Exposure:  ???
    S/s:  ???
    Tx:  ???
    • Agent Type:  Biologic Agent - Virus
    • Route of Exposure:  Direct contact  infected person's body fluids
    • S/s:  Fever, Weakness, Muscle pain, Headache, Sore Throat, N/V
    • Tx:  BSI, ABCs, Tx for shock, no specific Tx
  44. Microorganisms that reproduce binary fusion.  These single-cell creatures reproduce rapidly.  Some can form spores when environmental conditions are harsh.
    Bacteria
  45. Anthrax
    Agent type:  ???
    Route of Exposure:  ???
    S/s:  ???
    Tx:  ???
    • Agent Type:  Biologic Agent - Bacteria
    • Route of Exposure:  Inhalation of, ingestion of, or contact  spore
    • S/s:  Flulike symptoms, fever, respiratory distress, tachycardia, shock, pulmonary edema, respiratory failure  3-5 days
    • Tx:  Inhalation:  BSI, O2, Ventilator support, Rapid transport.  Cutaneous:  BSI, Apply sterile dressing to prevent contact  wounds.  Antibiotics and Vaccine available
  46. A disease caused by deadly bacteria (Bacillus Anthracis) that lie dormant in a spore;  the germ is released from the spore when exposed to the optimal temperature.
    Anthrax
  47. An edidemic that spread throughtout Europe in the Middle Ages, causing more that 25 million deaths, also called the Black Death; transmitted by infected fleas.
    Bubonic Plague
  48. A passive circulatory system that transport a plasmalike liquid called lymph, a thin fluid that bathes the tissues of the body.
    Lympathic System
  49. The area of the lympathic system where infection-fighting cells are housed.
    Lymph Nodes
  50. Enlarged lymph nodes (up to the size of a tennis ball) that were characterictic in people infected  bubonic plague.
    Buboes
  51. Bubonic/Pneumonic Plague
    Agent type:  ???
    Route of Exposure:  ???
    S/s:  ???
    Tx:  ???
    • Agent type:  Biologic Agent - Bacteria
    • Route of Exposure:  Ingestion, inhalation, or cutaneous
    • S/s:  Fever, headache, muscle pain, SOB, lymph node pain and enlargement
    • Tx:  BSI, ABCs, O2, Rapid transport
  52. A lung infection that is the result of inhalation of plague-causing bacteria.
    • Pneumonic Plague
    • Plague Pneumonia
  53. Biologic agents that are the most deadly substances known the humans.
    Neurotoxins
  54. Produced by bacteria, this is a very potent neurotoxin.  When introduced into the body, this neurotoxin affects the nervous system's ability to function and causes botulism.
    Botulinum
  55. The feeling of general discomfort or uneasiness.
    Malaise
  56. Coughing up blood
    Hemoptysis
  57. Botulinum Toxin
    Agent type:  ???
    Route of Exposure:  ???
    S/s:  ???
    Tx:  ???
    • Agent Type:  Biologic Agent - Neurotoxin
    • Route of Exposure:  Ingestion, inhalation
    • S/sDry mouth, Intestinal obstruction, Urinary retention, Consipation, N/V, Abnormal pupil dilation, Blurred vision, Double vision, Drooping eylids, Difficulty speaking or swallowing, Respiratory failure
    • Tx:  ABCs, Rapid transport, Ventilatory support if in respiratory failure, Vaccine is available
  58. A neurotoxin derived from mash that is left from the castor bean.
    Ricin
  59. Ricin
    Agent type:  ???
    Route of Exposure:  ???
    S/s:  ???
    Tx:  ???
    • Agent Type:  Biologic Agent - Neurotoxin
    • Route of Exposure:  Inhalation, ingestion, injection
    • S/s:  Cough, Dyspnea, Chest tightness, N/V, Muscle aches, Pulmonary edema, Hypoxia
    • Tx:  ABCs, no Tx or vaccine available 
  60. The monitoring, usually by local or state health departments, of pt. presenting to emergency departments and alternative care facilities, the recording of EMS call volume, and the use of over-the-counter (OTC) medications.
    Syndromic Surveillance
  61. Existing facilties that are established in a time of need for the mass distribution of antibiotics, vaccinations, and other medications and supplies.
    Points of Distribution (PODS)
  62. Energy that is emitted in the form of rays or particles.
    Ionizion Radiation
  63. A material the emits radiation.
    Radioactive Material
  64. A natural process in which a material that is unstable attempts to stabilize itself by changing its structure.
    Decay
  65. A type of energy that is emitted from a strong radiologic source; it is the least harmful penetrating type of radiation and cannot travel fast or through most objects.
    Alpha Radiation
  66. A type of energy that is emitted from a strong radiologic source; is slightly more penetrating than alpha and requires a layer of clothing to stop it.
    Beta Radiation
  67. A type of energy that is emitted from a strong radiologic source that is far faster and stronger than alpha and beta rays.  These rays easily penetrate through the human body and require lead or several inches of concrete to prevent penetration.
    • Gamma Radiation
    • X-Ray
  68. A type of energy that is emitted from a strong radiologic source; neutron particles are among the most powerful forms of radiation.  Neutrons easily penetrate through lead and require several feet of concrete to stop them.
    Neutron Radiation
  69. Any container that is designed to disperse radioactive material.
    Radiologic Dispersal Device (RDD)
  70. Small suitcase-sized nuclear weapons that were designed to destory individual targets, such as important buildings, bridges, tunnels, and large ships.
    Special Atomic Demolition Munitions (SADM)
  71. Injury due solely to the direct effects of the pressure wave on the body from an explosion.
    Primary Blast Injury
  72. Penetrating or nonpenetrating injury that results from being struck by flying debris  an explosion.
    Secondary Blast Injury
  73. Injury that results from whole body displacement and subsequent traumatic impact with environmental objects.
    Tertiary Blast Injury
  74. What is the organ that is most sensitive to blast injuries?
    The Ear

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