brain vocab

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Author:
henron86
ID:
175540
Filename:
brain vocab
Updated:
2012-10-04 15:03:48
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psychology
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definitions
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  1. CEREBELLUM
    The part of your brain below the back of your cerebrum and behind your brain stem that regulates your balance and helps you coordinate your muscles and control your body movements.
  2. CEREBRAL CORTEX
    The thin surface layer of your cerebrum which consists of gray matter. The cerebral cortex is where your cerebrum processes all the nerve signals in your body. If stretched out, it would be 30 times larger than it is all wrinkled up inside your skull!
  3. CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES
    The two halves, "left" and "right" sides, of your cerebrum, which is the main part of your brain. They control the opposite sides of your body through a connection at the bottom called your corpus callosum.
  4. CEREBRUM
    The largest and most complex part of your brain. It controls all your conscious thoughts and learning, including setting goals, your memories and your decisions to act.
  5. CORPUS CALLOSUM
    The wide arched band of "white matter" connecting your two cerebral hemispheres at the base of your "longitudinal fissure." A "fissure" is a groove that divides an organ into lobes or separates it into areas.
  6. CORTEX
    A deeply folded and ridged layer of neurons on the surface of your cerebrum.
  7. DENDRITE
    The branching structure at the receiving part of a neuron.
  8. ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM (E-lek-tro-en-seff-a-low-gram) or "EEG"
    A recording of electrical signals produced by your brain. EEGs can be used to show changes that occur to your brain during sleep and also to check that your brain is working normally.
  9. ENDOCRINE GLAND
    A type of gland that releases substances called "hormones" directly into your bloodstream. Your glands produce essential substances that enhance your body's processes.
  10. FRONTAL LOBE
    The region at the front and top of each cerebral hemisphere. These two "lobes" are important for reason, emotion, and judgment as well as voluntary movement.GLIA (GLY-uh)
  11. GLIA
    Brain cells that form a supporting network for the neurons in your brain
  12. GRAY MATTER
    Areas of your central nervous system that consist of the "cell bodies" of your neurons.
  13. HORMONE
    The substance produced by your endocrine gland that acts as a chemical messenger. Hormones are carried by your blood to target cells whose activity they regulate.
  14. HYPOTHALAMUS
    The region in the upper part of your brain stem that controls your body temperature, hunger, thirst, and your pituitary gland.
  15. LIMBIC SYSTEM
    The part of your brain that controls emotions, such as anger and pleasure, and other aspects of your specifically human behavior.
  16. MEDULLA OBLONGATA
    The lowest part of your brain stem at the top end of your spinal cord. It regulates your heartbeat, breathing and other automatic functions
  17. MOTOR CORTEX
    The part of both frontal lobes of the brain that controls voluntary muscle movements.
  18. MOTOR NEURON
    The type of neuron that carries nerve impulses from your brain and your spinal cord to your skeletal muscles and your glands
  19. MYELIN
    A fatty substance that surrounds and protects certain nerve fibers
  20. NERVE
    The bundle of nerve fibers that ferries nerve impulses between your central nervous system and all parts of your body.
  21. NERVE IMPULSE
    An electrical signal that travels along a neuron. Information is carried through the nervous system in nerve impulses.
  22. NEURON
    One of the billions of nerve cells that make up your nervous system. Your neurons are the most important information-processing cells in your brain. They carry nerve impulses throughout your body.
  23. NEUROTRANSMITTERS
    Chemicals that transmit nerve impulses between neurons.
  24. PITUITARY GLAND
    The major endocrine gland that is situated beneath your brain. It releases a number of hormones that affect other endocrine glands or control certain body activities directly.
  25. REFLEX
    Rapid response that takes place without you having to think about it. Your reflexes protect your body against dangers and hazards
  26. RETICLAR FORMATION
    The network of nerve cells deep within your brain stem that plays a major role in maintaining your sleep and wakefulness.
  27. SENSORY CORTEX
    Any part of your brain that receives messages from your sense organs or messages of touch and temporature from throughout your body.
  28. SENSORY NEURON
    The type of neuron that carries nerve impulses to the brain and spinal cord from sensors in your skin, eyes, ears, tongue, nose, and other bodily parts
  29. SKELETAL MUSCLES
    The muscles that are attached to your skeletal bones. They move the body.
  30. SPINAL CORD
    The mass of nervous tissue that is connected to the base of your brain. It runs down your back within the backbone and relays messages between your brain and your spinal nerves.
  31. SYNAPSE
    The junction between two of your neurons or between a neuron and a muscle fiber or cell. It is the structure where a nerve impulse passes from one neuron to another. Within the synapse is a tiny gap between the ends of the neurons
  32. TEMPORAL LOBE
    The region at the lower side of each cerebral hemisphere that contain centers of hearing and memory.
  33. THALAMUS
    The structure at the top of your brain stem that serves as a relay center for sensory information
  34. WHITE MATTER
    Areas of your central nervous system that consist of nerve fibers.

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