Forensic science Midterm Review

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Forensic science Midterm Review
2012-10-08 12:03:56
Forensic science Midterm Review

Forensic science Midterm Review
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  1. Forensic science
    The application of science to law
  2. Mathieu Orfila
    The father of forensic toxicology
  3. Alphonse Bertillion
    Devised the first scientific system of personal indentification
  4. Francis Galton
    Conducted the first definitive study of fingerprints and their classification
  5. Leone Lattes
    Developed  from a procedure to determine blood type from dried bloodstains
  6. Calvin Goodard
    Used a comparison microscope to determine if a particular gun fired a bullet
  7. Albert Osborn
    developed the fundamental principles of document examination
  8. Walter McCrone
    utilized microscopy and other analytical methodologies to examine evidence
  9. Hans Gross
    wrote the first treatise describing describing the application of scientific principles to the field of criminal investigation
  10. What are the five basic services provided by crime laboratories
    • Physical science unit
    • Biology unit
    • Firearms unit
    • Document unit
    • Photographic unit
  11. Biology unit
    Applies the knowledge of biological sciences in order to investigate blood samples, body fluids, hair and fiber samples
  12. Document unit
    Provides the skill needed for handwriting analysis and other questioned document issues
  13. The Frye v. United States decision set guidelines
    for determining the admissibility of scientific evidence into the courtroom.
  14. To meet the Frye standard
    The evidence in question must be generally accepted by the scientific community
  15. What case determined the Frye standard to not be obsolete   
    1993 Daubert v. Merrell Dow pharmaceutical, Inc
  16. What was determined in the Daubert case
    Trial judges were said to be the gatekeepers for admissibility and validity of scientific evidence presented in their courts
  17. What are the guidelines of the Supreme court in the Daubert case
    • 1. Whether the scientific technique or theory can be and has been tested
    • 2. Whether the technique or theory has been subject to peer review and publication
    • 3. The technique's potential rate of error
    • 4. Existence and maintenance of standards controlling the technique's operation
    • 5. Whether the scientific theory or method has attracted widespread acceptance within a relevant scientific community
  18. Rigor mortis results
    in the shortening of muscle tissue and the stiffening of muscle tissue and the body parts
  19. Livor mortis
    results in the setting of the blood in areas of the body closest to the ground
  20. Algor mortis
    results in the loss of heat by a body
  21. When does algor mortis begin
    an hour after death
  22. Fission
    Uses the heat generated by a nuclear fission process to drive a steam turbine which generates usuable electricity
  23. Atomic bomb
    involves the splitting of atoms and a huge release of energy that produces the atomic mushroom cloud
  24. Dirty bomb
    Uses dynamite to scatter radioative dust,smoke or other material in order to cause radioactive contamination
  25. 12 psi
    1.7 miles everything is destroyed
  26. 5 psi
    2.7 miles everything is destroyed
  27. 2 psi
    4.7 miles suffer heavy damage all windows are gone 90% fatalities
  28. 1 psi
    7.4 miles moderate damage 25% of population injured 65% fatalities
  29. The energy of a nuclear explosion is transferred in three distinct forms
    • Blast
    • Thermal radiation
    • Nuclear radiation
  30. Heavy water
    Water is enriched with radioactive hydrogen isotope as moderator
  31. What are the four types of Japenese reactors
    • Pressurized
    • Boiling water
    • Gas cooled
    • Heavy water
  32. What is the most common type of Japenese reactor
  33. What is the second most common type of Japenese reactor
  34. When was the FBI created
    In 1908
  35. What are the top three priorities of the FBI
    • Counterterrroism
    • Counterintelligence
    • Cybercrime
  36. What rules does the state of FL use for admissibility of evidence
    The frye test plus
  37. What are Kelly Frye hearings
    Preliminary hearings in which the judge determines whether or not to permit particular scientific evidence to be presented to the jury during trial
  38. What is another name for the Frye test plus
    Kelly frye test
  39. What test does California court use
    Kelly Frye test
  40. In terms of DNA admissibility what are the differences between Frye and Daubert
    • 1.Daubert requires a consideration of error rates, whereas Frye typically does not
    • 2. Frye case is about admissibility whereas Daubert is about the weight 
  41. What test must the federal courts use
  42. Who created Sherlock Holmes?
    Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
  43. Who established the first workable crime lab?
  44. Who developed Anthropometry
    Alphonse Bertillon
  45. What are the duties of the first officer at the scene
    Preserving and protecting the area as much as possible
  46. What crime scene search pattern is most popular for large areas
    Strip or line search
  47. What is the normal body temperature