Therio MT III

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HLW
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175638
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Therio MT III
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2012-10-04 21:54:40
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Therio MT III
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Therio MT III
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  1. What is the length of proestrus/interestrus in the cat?
    8-10 day
  2. When does progesterone rise to >2ng/ml in the cat?
    1-2 days after ovulation
  3. When is the peak concentration of progesterone in the cat?
    25-30 days
  4. What hormone is produced by the feto-placental unit in cats, is not detecable in nonpregnant animal, probably has a role in maintaining the CL?
    relaxin
  5. When does implantation occur in the cat?
    12-13 days after ovulation
  6. A high P4 level in cats is a good indicator of what?
    that they were bred, NOT that they are pregnant
  7. How should dystocia in the cat be controlled?
    allow 4 hours labor to 1st kitten, 2 hour course between kittens, treat with oxytocin or immediate C-section
  8. Is the temperature drop associated with parturition observed in the cat, like in the dog?
    no
  9. What progestins are used to suppress estrus in the cat?
    megastrol acetate, medroxyprogesterone acetate
  10. What drugs are used for induction of ovulation in the cat?
    GnRH induces luteal phase but may predispose to pyometra
  11. What is the most common congenital anomaly of male cats?
    cryptorchidism, but incidence is low (<2%)
  12. What is a popular diagnostic test for cat suspected of a retained testes?
    penile spines, presumed to be absent if no androgens are produced.
  13. What are paired 5 mm pea-shaped glands of the cat, dorsolateral to the bulb of the penis at the ischial symphysis?
    bulbourethral glands
  14. Serum concentrations of what hormones are elevated in female bitches with previous OVE?
    LH (>200 ng/ml) and FSH (>290 ng/ml)
  15. What are differential diagnosis for primary anestrus in the bitch?
    previous OVE, unobserved heat, abnormal sexual differentiation, drug-induced, hypothyroidism, systemic dz, ovarian P4 secretion, ovarian aplasia (elevated LH and FSH), and autoimmune oophoritis
  16. What can secondary anestrus in the bitch, which is prolonged interestrus interval > 10 months, be due to?
    hypothyroidism and age
  17. What is persistent estrus in the bitch?
    combined proestrus and estrus of more than 6 weeks
  18. What are causes of persistent estrus?
    hyperestrogenism caused by follicular cystic disease and ovarian neoplasia
  19. What is a cause of irregular estrus, is due to breakthrough bleeding at onset of follicular activity preceding normal proestrus?
    split heat
  20. What are 3 causes of infertility in females with abnormal estrus patterns?
    persistent estrus, irregular estrus, nonreceptive behavior at estrus
  21. What are reasons for nonreceptive behavior at estrus in the bitch?
    • poor timing of mating
    • physical abnormality of the vulva, vestibule, or vagina
    • some females wont stand for males until fertile period is almost over
  22. What are some reasons for the dog to fail to achieve an erection?
    psychological constraints, pain, androgen insufficiency (uncommon)
  23. What are some reasons for the dog to fail to ejaculate?
    age, pain, pharmological agents, retrograde ejaculation
  24. What are some reasons for failure to copulate in the dog?
    age, overuse, psychological constraints
  25. What are some reasons for azoospermia (no sperm in ejaculate)?
    chromosomal, bilateral cryptorchidism, germinal cell aplasia, familial auto-immune thyroiditis/orchitis, segmental aplasia of duct system
  26. What are some reasons for oligospermia (abnormally low numbers of sperm in the ejaculate)?
    small testis, orchitis, prostatic disease
  27. In most normal dogs, when are the testes scrotal?
    by 10 days of age
  28. What is the incidence of cryptorchidism in dogs?
    1.2-5%
  29. What breeds are at risk for cryptorchidism?
    toy breeds and boxers
  30. What is the way to diagnose cryptorchidism in the dog?
    GnRH stim test for inducing measurable testosterone increase, testosterone increased 2 fold is diagnostic for cryptorchism
  31. What is the most common medical treatment for cryptorchidism?
    use of drugs providing lutenizing hormone activity
  32. Which testicular tumor make up 44% of total canine testicular tumors and are more common in cryptorchidism?
    sertoli cell tumor
  33. What testicular tumor makes up 31% of total canine testicular tumors, is neoplasia of germ cells, found more in normal testicles, and GSD are predisposed?
    seminoma
  34. What is a thin band of CT along the ventral midline of the penis?
    penile frenulum
  35. What is a urethral opening in abnormal location?
    hypospadias
  36. What is it called then the penis will not extend through preputial sheath?
    phimosis
  37. What is it called when the extended penis will not return into the preputial sheath?
    paraphimosis

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