Therio MT I

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HLW
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175641
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Therio MT I
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2012-10-04 21:54:54
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Therio MT I
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  1. In the dog, when are oocytes ready to be fertilized?
    on the 5th day of estrus
  2. In the dog, breedings from what days, result ing a high conception rate (over 90% in some studies)?
    breedings from day 1-6
  3. In normal matings of normal dogs, the period of potential fertility is how many days long?
    10 days
  4. When is the period of high fertility in the dog?
    the day before, to 6 days after the LH surge
  5. What provides the ideal information for breeding management?
    LH assay
  6. In the dog, what plasma concentration of LH is an accurate method for determining time to breed?
    peripheral plasma concentration
  7. What LH assay can be done in house, can identify LH surge to within 1-2 days, but usually requires multiple samplings?
    ELIZA
  8. What assay is used for estimating time of LH surge?
    Progesterone
  9. What day does P4 exceeds 2 ng/ml in the bitch?
    day of or day after LH surge
  10. When breedings must be critically timed (AI), breedings may be performed when?
    one day after P4 exceeds 8-10 ng/ml (the values seen the first day of oocyte readiness for fertilization)
  11. What are other considerations for timing of breeding?
    estrogens and ultrasound imaging
  12. What is the test of choice for brucella canis?
    serology, not culture
  13. What do negative titers of canine herpes virus mean?
    the female is susceptible, isolate last 3 weeks of gestation, and first 3 weeks following whelping
  14. What is used when copulation is impossible or not permitted?
    artificial insemination
  15. How long can canine semen hold up during cooling?
    it can be transported for 48 hours in semen extender in an insulated container
  16. How much of the canine ejaculate is used in artificial insemination?
    whole eljaculate (the presperm and sperm-rich fraction may be diluted to 4-5 cc with prostatic fluid)
  17. The proliferation of cells in vaginal epithelium with thick layer of superficial cells cannot be supported past what days?
    8-9 days post LH peak
  18. In late estrus, what cells predominate?
    superficial cells are lost and parabasal cells/intermediate cells predominate in smear
  19. During estrus, superficial cells prevent PMN's from migating into the lumen, with the loss of the dead superfical cell layer, what happens?
    PMNs can now migrate through epithelium and kill bacteria
  20. What are problems that can arise if estrus in the dog is defined by behavior?
    some dogs start standing well before the LH peak or estrogen peak, some dogs continue standing for 10-12 days after LH peak, others refuse to stand after less than a week post-LH
  21. How long can canine sperm live in the estrus canine uterus?
    a week
  22. Optimum fertilization/survival rate for single matings occur when?
    four days before day 1 of cytological diestrus, or 5 days after the LH peak
  23. The conception rate of a dog is over 90% over a period of 8 days that begins when?
    10 days before "day 1 of cytological diestrus"
  24. Fertilization rate of oocytes with embryo survival peaks when?
    4 days before "day 1 of cytological diestrus"
  25. Why is there no clear cut typical gestation length from any one breeding during estrus?
    because gestation begins with fertilization, not with breeding
  26. When marked against LH peak or D1, small litters have a long or short gestation?
    long
  27. When marked against LH peak or D1, large litters have a long or short gestation?
    short
  28. Estradial-17B is higher in nonpregnant or pregnant bitches?
    nonpregnant
  29. Estrone is higher in pregnant or nonpregnant?
    pregnant
  30. What hormone is not detectable in males, nonpregnant diestrus, and anestrus females, and in pregnant females peaks 2-3 weeks before parturition?
    relaxin
  31. What hormone is low in nonpregnant during most of diestrus; elevated in late pregnancy and lactation?
    prolactin
  32. What hormone increases in late luteal phase in both pregnant and nonpregnant?
    LH
  33. After day 16 following LH surge, higher concentrations of this hormone are found in pregnant than nonpregnant?
    FSH
  34. In diagnosis of pregnancy in the bitch, when is palpation possible?
    25-35 days
  35. In diagnosis of pregnancy in the bitch, when is radiographic imaging possible?
    fetal calcification 43-46 days after LH peak
  36. In diagnosis of pregnancy in the bitch, when is ultrasound imaging possible?
    fluid filled vesicle first observed 20 days after LH peak
  37. In the bitch, this hormone is >250 mg/dl by day 21-30 of gestation, it is 98% accurate if >280 mg/dl and is 100% accurate if >300 mg/dl?
    fibrinogen
  38. What initiates parturition in the bitch (sequence of events)?
    fetal ACTH increases, fetal adrenal cortisol increases, estrogen increases, PGF2a increases, progesterone decreases, oxytocin increases
  39. If dexamethasone is given prior to 51 days in the bitch to induce parturition, what happens to the pups?
    they are born alive and die
  40. When can dexamethasone be given to the bitch to cause parturition in 1-2 days?
    57-58 days, 0.4 mg/kg parenterally
  41. All bitches that are greater than what date of gestation postbreeding is considered prolonged?
    72 days
  42. What mimic the luteal phase in bitches and prevent estrus?
    progestins
  43. Why was the use of promone, an injectable longlasting medroxyprogesterone discontinued in the US?
    caused many pyometras
  44. What is the only progestin approved for estrus suppression?
    ovaban (megestrol acetate)
  45. What are progestins that are approved for use outside of the USA?
    medroxyprogesterone acetate and proligesterone, given during anestrus
  46. What androgen is injectable and used in racing greyhound females every 14 days?
    testosterone proprionate injection
  47. What androgen is using in racing greyhounds and is given orally 2x per week?
    methyltestosterone
  48. What are the basis of the morning after pill or the mismate shot?
    estrogens
  49. What are side effects that Vets worry about with giving the mis-mate shot?
    bone marrow suppression with overdose, pyometra
  50. What does PGF2a cause in the dog?
    abortion (luteolysis)
  51. What is the form of estrogen most available?
    estradiol cypionate (ECP)
  52. Why are multiple small doses of PGF2a given to the dog instead of a single dose?
    the single dose necessary to cause luteolysis is very close to the lethal dose
  53. What side effects occur within 10-15 min of giving PGF2a?
    vomiting, hyperpnea, hypersalivation
  54. If prolactin is given after midgestation in the bitch, what happens?
    interference with normal prolactin production and release, causes luteolysis, reduced p4 and pregnancy loss
  55. At what dose and how often, does dexamethasone have to be given to the bitch to cause termination of pregnancy?
    0.1-0.2 mg/kg two to three times daily for 5-10 days
  56. How is Mifepristone (RU486) gvien to cause termination of pregnancy in the bitch?
    after day 32 of gestation, 2.5 mg/kg BID orally for 4.5 days
  57. In addition to termination of pregnancy after 30 days, this drug is also used to initiate parturition and to treat pyometra in the bitch?
    aglepristone
  58. What are some infectious diseases that cause pregnancy loss?
    brucella canis, campylobacter jejuni, salmonella, E. coli, B-hemolytic streptococci
  59. When does brucella canis cause abortion?
    7-9 weeks of gestation
  60. What are the public health issues involving brucella canis infection?
    zoonotic, antibiotic therapy does not completely eliminate organism

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