RT 51A Chest quiz review

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RT 51A Chest quiz review
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2012-10-06 22:51:29
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RT 51A chest quiz
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RT 51A chest quiz
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  1. Chest/Thorax is divided into 3 sections. Name the 3 sections.
    Bony thorax- framework

    Respiratory system- lungs and airways

    Mediastinum- space between lungs 
  2. The bony thorax consists of: 
    Sternum- manubrium, body, xiphoid process

    Clavicles (2)

    Scapula (2)

    12 pairs of ribs

    12 thoracic vertebra
  3. The vertebra prominens is located?
    C-7 spinous process
  4. The jugular notch is located?
    • suprasternal notch
    • manubrial notch
    • depression on upper  sternum T2-T3 interspace
  5. The xiphoid process is located?
    Anterior margin of diaphragm T9-T10
  6. what is the purpose of the Respiratory system?
    To exchange gaseous substances  between air and blood
  7. The Respiratory system has 4 divisions and a diaphragm. name the four divisions.
    Pharynx

    Trachea

    Bronchi

    Lungs
  8. The pharynx is an upper airway. what are the 3 pharynx?
    nasopharynx

    oropharynx

    laryngopharynx
  9. What is the Larynx?
    Organ of voice

    1.5-2in. long

    suspended from hyoid bone

    Level of C3-C6

    Thyroid cartilage forms anterior wall of larynx

    Laryngeal prominence/ Adam's apple= C5

    Cridoid cartilage forms inferior and posterior wall

    epligottis
  10. What is the Trachea?
    4.5 inches long

    3/4 inch in diameter

    16-20 ridges cartilagenous rings

    Level of C6-T4
  11. Bronchi
    Level of T5 trachea bifurcates into right and left main stem bronchi

    Area of bifurcation is carina

    Right bronchus is straight and larger
  12. The right lung has ___ lobes. The left lung has ___ lobes.
    Right= 3 lobes      Left= 2 lobes
  13. The pleura is a doublwall layers covering the lungs. Name the layers
    Pulmonary/visceral layer= inner layer

    Parietal layer= outer

    Pleural cavity= space between the two layers
  14. Regions and specific:chest radiographic anatomy
    trachea

    apex(apices=2)

    carina

    base

    Right and Left hemidiaphragms

    costophrenic angles

    hilum
  15. Regions and specific:radiographic anatomy (bones/joints)
    clavicles

    ribs (anterior/posterior)

    sternum

    sternoclavicular joints
  16. Regions and specific:left lateral position
    apices

    costophrenic angles

    bases

    hemidiaphragms

    hilum

    scapula
  17. Mediastinum: Medial portion of thoracic cavity between lungs
    Be able to locate:

    Trachea

    Esophagus

    Thymus gland

    Heart

    Great vessels: aorta, superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, pulmonary artery and veins
  18. Chest x-ray Pt. prep.
    undress from the waist up

    remove all opaque objects

    always have patient wear shoes

    caution: long hair
  19. PA projection of chest x-ray pt. positioning
    pt. erect, feet spread slightly.

    chin raised

    hands on lower hips, palms out, elbows slightly flexed

    shoulders rotated forward against IR to move scapula away from lung field

    depress shoulders downward

    align MSP to CR and to midline of IR with equal margins between lateral thorax and sides of IR.

    Ensure no rotation of thorax

    Raise or lower CR and IR to the level of T-7

    Top of IR will be 1.5-2 inches above shoulders
  20. Breathing instructions for Chest x-ray
    Inspiration

    clear, concise directions

    expose on 2nd breath

    dont assume pt. can hold their breath
  21. Degree of Inspiration
    minimum 10-11 ribs

    count posterior ribs

    3 dimensions: vertical, transverse, AP
  22. PA chest
    14x17 lw/cw depending on pt's body habitus

    pronate marker

    pt faces IR with shoulders rotated forward

    CR directed perpendicular to T7 and midcoronal plane

    Top of IR 1 1/2-2 inches above top of shoulders

    expose on inspiration
  23. AP chest positioning
    position: supine, semi-upright, or upright

    CR: angled caudad, perpendicular with long axis of the sternum. (+/- 5 degrees)

    CR centering: Level of T7, 3 to 4 inches below the jugular notch

    Top of IR 1.5 inches above shoulders
  24. AP chest criteria
    Heart will appear larger due to increased OID. (magnification)

    Inspiration will not be as full as erect , 8 to 9 posterior wibs visualized above the diaphragm

    Scapula might not be all the way out of the lung fields

    Correct CR Angle = Three posterior ribs should be seen above the clavicles
  25. Left lateral chest
    14x17 lw

    left side against film

    both arms above pt's head

    mid-coronal plane perpendicular to IR

    Mid-saggital plane parallel to IR

    CR perpendicular to T7 and mid-coronal plane

    Top of IR at level of top of shoulders

    expose on inspiration
  26. Radiation Protection
    Limit repeat exposures

    collimation

    gonadal shielding

    reduce back scatter

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