Bio Exam 2

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Bio Exam 2
2012-10-04 23:46:54

bio exam 2 cell notes
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  1. Which of the following are prokaryotic cells?
  2. Which of the following is not found in a prokaryotic cell?
    endoplasmic reticulum
  3. The plasma membrane is

    A. a feature of all cells
    B. found in prokaryotic cells only
    C. found in eukaryotic cells only
    D. found in plant cells only
    E. found in animal cells only
    a feature of all cells
  4. A cell has the following molecules and structures: enzymes, DNA, ribosomes, plasma membrane, and mitochondria. It could be a cell from?
    a plant or an animal.
  5. Large numbers of ribosomes are present in cells that specialize in producing which of the following molecules?

    A. proteins
    B. lipids
    C. glucose
    D. steroids
    E. starches
  6. Which type of organelle is primarily involved in the synthesis of oils, phospholipids, and steroids?

    A. Golgi vesicles 
    B. smooth ER
    C. rough ER
    D. lysosomes
    smooth ER
  7. ________ depend on energy stored in chemical bonds by autotrophs for their food energy
  8. A molecule that stores energy by linking charged phosphate groups near each other is called?
  9. An electron carrier that is used in harvesting energy from glucose molecules in a series of gradual steps in the cytoplasm is?
  10. At least 90% of organisms on the earth are heterotrophs. Examples include all of the following except
    A. most bacteria 
    B. plants
    C. animals
    D. most protists
    E. fungi
  11. Cells release energy from molecules such as glucose in a process very similar to inhalation of air and exhalation of carbon dioxide by humans. This process is known as cellular
  12. In digestion, which is a prelude to metabolism, all of the following occur except

    A. carbohydrates are degraded to sugars
    B. proteins are degraded into amino acids
    C. lipids are degraded to fatty acids 
    D. all of these occur
    all of these occur 
  13. If the following reaction is in equilibrium, what will happen if you decrease the concentration of C and D?

    A + B --> <-- C + D
    The forward reaction (A+B to C+D) will increase
  14. High energy electrons, moving through electron transport chains, build the proton (hydrogen ion, H+) gradient that drives ATP synthesis in both cellular respiration and photosynthesis. Match the source of high energy electrons to the correct process below.
    • photosynthesis = sunlight hitting photopigment molecules like chlorophyll
    • cellular respiration = breaking glucose down into water and carbon dioxie
  15. In a plant cell, where is ATP synthase located

    A. thylakoid membrane
    B. plasma membrane
    C. inner mitochondrial membrane 
    D. thylakoid membrane and inner mitochondrial membrane
    E. thylakoid membrane, plasma membrane, and inner mitochondrial membrane
    thylakoid membrane and inner mitochondrial membrane
  16. During which process does the generation of proton (H+) gradients across membranes occur?

    A. photosynthesis
    B. respiration 
    C. both photosynthesis and respiration
    D. neither photosynthesis nor respiration
    both photosynthesis and respiration
  17. Since membranes are relatively impermeable to ions, most of the protons pass through special channels in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Because of the flow of protons these channels allow the synthesis of
    ATP from ADP and Pi
  18. The electron transport chain, a series of membrane-associated electron carriers, uses most of the energy lost by transfer of electrons to drive several transmembrane
    A. sodium, potassium pumps
    B. electron pumps
    C. chloride pumps 
    D. proton pumps
    proton pumps
  19. What is the primary function of the light reactions of photosynthesis?  

    A. to produce ATP and NADPH
    B. to use ATP to make glucose
    C. to fix carbon dioxide
    D. to produce energy-rich glucose from carbon dioxide and water
    to produce ATP and NADPH
  20. In a plant cell, where is ATP synthase located? 
    A. thylakoid membrane
    B. plasma membrane
    C. inner mitochondrial membrane 
    D. thylakoid membrane and inner mitochondrial membrane
    E. thylakoid membrane, plasma membrane, and inner mitochondrial membrane
    thylakoid membrane and inner mitochondrial membrane
  21. Organic molecules  
    1. are made by living things
    2. occur spontaneously
    3. both
    4. neither
    are made by living things 
  22. All organic molecules contain the following
    1. nitrogen 
    2. hydrogen
    3. oxygen 
    4. carbon
    hydrogen and carbon 
  23. Carbon gets incorporated into organic molecules from an inorganic form during 
    1. cellular respiration 
    2. the calvin cycle
    3. the kreb's cycle
    4. the light-dependent reactions
    the calvin cycle 
  24. What are the products of the light reactions that are subsequently used by the Calvin cycle?

    A. carbon dioxide and RuBP 
    B. ATP and NADPH
    C. electrons and photons
    D. water and carbon
    ATP and NADPH
  25. Which of the following statements best represents the relationships between the light reactions and the Calvin cycle?
    The light reactions provide ATP and NADPH to the Calvin cycle, and the cycle returns ADP, Pi, and NADP+ to the light reactions.
  26. Which of the following processes produces molecular oxygen (O2)?
    light reactions only
  27. During which process does oxidative phosphorylation occur?
  28. During aerobic respiration the final acceptor of the hydrogen atoms is  
    A. oxygen
    B. water
    C. glucose
    D. carbon dioxide
  29. In oxidative respiration, energy is harvested from glucose molecules in a sequence of four major pathways. Which of the following is NOT one of these four pathways?

    A. chemiosmosis 
    B. fermentation
    C. electron transfer through the transport chain
    D. glycolysis
    E. Krebs cycle
  30. Select the correct sequence concerning glucose catabolism.
    glycolysis → Pyruvate → Acetyl CoA → Kreb Cycle → Electron Transport Chain
  31. The oxygen utilized in cellular respiration finally shows up as
  32. When ATP levels are high, oxidative pathways are inhibited, so acetyl-CoA is channeled into
    fatty acid synthesis
  33. When substrate-level phosphorylation occurs, it means that?

    A. NAD is converted into NADH
    B. cAMP is converted into ADP by adding a phosphate    group
    C. NADH is converted into NAD + H
    D. ATP is converted into ADP + a phosphate group 
    E. ADP is converted into ATP by addition of a phosphate group
    ADP is converted into ATP by addition of a phosphate group
  34. Glycolysis is believed to be one of the most ancient of metabolic processes. Which statement below least supports this idea?
    If run in reverse, glycolysis will build glucose molecules
  35. Glycolysis takes place in which location? 

    A. cytosol
    B. mitochondrial outer membrane
    C. mitochondrial inner membrane
    D. mitochondrial intermembrane space
    E. mitochondrial matrix
  36. All of the following statements about NAD+ are true except:

    A. In the absence of NAD+, glycolysis cannot function. 
    B. NAD+ has more chemical energy than NADH.
    C. NAD+ can receive electrons for use in oxidative phosphorylation.
    D. NAD+ is reduced to NADH during both glycolysis and the Krebs cycle.
    NAD+ has more chemical energy than NADH
  37. The Krebs cycle produces which of the following molecules that then transfer energy to the electron transport system?
    FADH2 and NADH
  38. How many carbon atoms enter glycolysis per glucose molecule?
    A. 0
    B. 2
    C. 4 
    D. 6
    E. 8
  39. How many carbon atoms enter the electron transport chain per glucose molecule?

    A. 0
    B. 2
    C. 4
    D. 6
    E. 8
  40. Which process in eukaryotic cells will normally proceed whether O2 is present or absent?
  41.  In addition to ATP, what are the end products of glycolysis?

    A. CO2 and H2O
    B. CO2 and ethyl alcohol
    C. CO2 and NADH
    D. H2O and ethyl alcohol 
    E. NADH and pyruvate
    NADH and pyruvate
  42. All of the following are functions of the Krebs cycle except

    A. production of ATP. 
    B. adding electrons and protons to oxygen to form water.
    C. release of carbon dioxide.
    D. production of NADH.
    E. production of FADH2
    adding electrons and protons to oxygen to form water
  43. Which of the following is true for exergonic reactions?
    The products have less free energy than the reactants.
  44. In eukaryotic cells, chromosomes are composed of
    DNA and proteins