Renaissance Art (part 1)

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    • Saint Francis Altarpiece
    • Artist: Berlinghieri
    • Era: Maniera Greca
    • Location: San Francesco, Pescia, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • tempera on wood
    • first known signed and dated representation of St. Francis
    • St. Francis wearing clerical garb of order that he founded (Franciscan order)
    • holding a large book
    • showing off stigmata
    • holes in hands and feet - Christ-like marks from being crucified
    • flanked by angels with frontal pose, halos, and lack modeling
    • enhanced Byzantine style with gold leaf
    • to emphasize
    • image’s flatness and also spiritual era of the piece
    • enhanced Byzantine style with gold leaf emphasizes the images flat style and the spiritual nature of the piece
    • Byzantine illuminate manuscripts on the side of him
    • St. Francis on right is preaching to birds - he could communicate with nature - he believed he could be closer to god through nature
    • no modelling in figures
    • no recession into space
    • stylized landscape
    • stippling technique - little tiny dots of paint - makes the plants look like they are twinkling
    • whole piece had a strictly formality
    • stippling livens the scene
    • emotional resonance
    • narrative scene contrast rigid form of St. Francis in center
    • on our upper left he is receiving wounds from angel Serpeh
    • people should be committed to teaching
    • he is showing how to alleviate the suffering of mankind
    • closer to god by rejecting all worldly goods
    • strict life of fasting, prayer, and meditation
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    • Pulpit Baptistry
    • Artist: Nicola Pisano
    • Era: Proto-Renaissance, 1259-1260
    • Location: Pisa, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • sculpture on inside not outside of churches
    • raised platforms from where sermons would be read
    • Medieval influence
    •    - tri-lobed arches
    •    - lions that support some of the columns
    • Classical influence
    •    - large bushy capitals Isimilar to Corinthean)
    •    - rounded not pointed arches, ogival arhes
    •    - relief panels are densely packed (inspiration from Roman sarcophagi)
    • each panel is a scene from the life of Christ
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    • Annunciation and Nativity 
    • Artist: Nicola Pisano
    • Era: Proto-Renaissance
    • Location: Pulpit Baptistry, Pisa Cathedral, Italy
    • Techniques
    • two stories are compressed into one panel
    • dense and pushed to surface
    • few shadows
    • angel is pointing at Mary and Mary is pointing at herself
    • no body contour
    • rigid v-shaped folds
    • very little recession into space
    • annunciation in top right
    • Mary's posture is like a sarcophagus,  pushed and turned, looks like reclining, sitting on the side of her hip, not natural
    • type faces, difference is only in coiffure
    • heavy drapery
    • bulky and thick figure
    • systematic stylized folds
    • two figures washing the Christ on bottom
    • people coming to see Christ in top right
    • animals in bottom right to show setting
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    • Annunciation and Nativity
    • Artist: Giovanni Pisano
    • Era: Proto-Renaissance, 1297-1301
    • Location: Pulpit of San Andrea, Pistola, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • loosely and dynamically arranged figures
    • motion suggested because of the deep open spaces between the figures
    • pushed to the surface
    • marble relief
    • twisting and bending bodies in a more natural form
    • deeply drilled background - more sense of light and shadow
    • Mary is in a more natural position, sense of contraposta and slight recession into space- body contour under clothing
    • deeply undercut folds for play of light and shadow on garment
    • she is almost completely free from background
    • figures are moved by spiritual passion, energetic, shepards and sheep aren't emotional
    • swiftly turning bodies
    • thinner figures
    • emotionalism of scene
    • Mary is shrinking away from announcement adding emotion
    • focused on realism and naturalism
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    • Madonna Enthroned with Angels and Prophets
    • Artist: Cimabue
    • Era: Proto-Renaissance
    • Location: Uffizi Gallery, Florence
    • Techniques:
    • tempera on wood
    • formality of style that symbolizes the dignity of the theme presented
    • modeled after Byzantine examples - symmetrical balance and gold background
    • gold accents give it a three dimensional quality
    • deeper space
    • no body contour
    • architectural throne
    • prophets underneath Mary under rounded arches
    • can see both eyes - spiritual connection
    • Christ looks like a little old man, not an infant, not natural
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    • Madonna Enthroned
    • Artist: Giotto
    • Era: Proto-Renaissance, 1310
    • Location: Uffizi Gallery, Florence
    • Techniques:
    • tempera on wood
    • everyone is looking at Mary and is in side profile
    • gold background
    • representational art
    • Madonna is very weighty
    • heavy fabric - two large folds
    • slight body contour
    • sturdy queenly mother
    • equated to Greco-Roman goddess sculptures
    • earthly figure, she casts shadows
    • solid figure of Christ
    • throne is an extension of a Gothic cathedral, gable with pinnacles
    • she is inside a niche of the cathedral
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    • Arena Chapel
    • Artist: Giotto
    • Era: Proto-Renaissance, 1305-1306
    • Location: Cappella Scrovegni, Padua, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • rectangular barrel vaulted hall
    • six narrow windows in the south wall only
    • entire north wall is unbroken but it is well illuminated
    • real light source is used in the creation of play of light and shadow in the painting
    • stories of the life of Christ
    • 38 framed pictures on 3 levels
    • top is virgin Mary and her parents
    • middle is life and mission of Christ
    • bottom is passion, crucifixion and ressurection
    • very bottom, section of neutral toned panels meant to look like painted marble, 1st style grey monotone - grisalle people sitting on wall in between colored marble sections
    • above chapels entrance is last judgement
    • ceiling is blue with painted stars
    • Christ, Mary, and a few prophets in medallions on ceiling
    • entire background is blue, unifies the chapel
    • black rods are engineering to strengthen walls
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    • Lamentation
    • Artist: Giotto
    • Era: Proto-Renaissance, 1305
    • Location: Arena Chapel, Padua, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • Mary and Christ's decipals mourning his death
    • angels are hysterical with grief in sky
    • Mary Magdalene is looking at his feet
    • everyone has gray skin tone
    • Mary is cradling his body
    • St. John the Baptist throwing his arms back in grief and shock- blue background
    • set on earth
    • uses pictorial elements to create space
    • Christ is off center - off center focus
    • uses wall to draw eyes to Christ (pictorial device) and creates a stage like setting
    • shallow foreground creates drama
    • steep angle of wall is a formal element and connects to panel next to it, unifying elements
    • sculpturesque, simple, weighty figures
    • cluster technique to show lots of people
    • backs of individuals - no eyes - physically closing off the scene and creating a stage setting
    • clearly outlined figures
    • different fabric weight and texture emphasized with folds and play of light and shadows differentiate figures
    • light and shadow creates spacial depth, bodily mass, and perspective
    • compostional complexity plus emotion ressonance
    • each group of people has own definition creating a rhythmic order to the piece
    • barren tree alludes to the fall of Adam and Eve, wall starts with tree and leads to Christ - wall goes from fall of man the rebirth of man - figures are pushed to foreground but it is not flat
    • contradiction to old frontality
    • entire panel synthesizes dramatic narrative, holy lesson, and truth to human experience
    • motion and emotion created in angels contrasts lack of motion and emotion of the earthly figures
    • angels have individualistic emotion and facial expression in reaction to what is happening
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    • Death of St. Francis
    • Artist: Giotto
    • Era: Proto-Renaissance
    • Location: Bardi Chapel, Sta Corce, Floarence, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • shallow space create by architecture
    • elongated figures
    • figures in profile
    • groupings of figures
    • strongly outlined figures
    • more solemn feeling, less dramatic emotion
    • later in his life than The Lamentation
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    • Maesta Altarpiece
    • Artist: Duccio
    • Era: Proto-Renaissance
    • Techniques:
    • tempera on wood- inscription asking to pray for himself, Siena, and churches in general
    • 7 pinnacles
    • predella is raised shelf on base
    • Madonna enthroned as the queen of heaven
    • Byzantine tradition - formality and symmetry
    • figures are types
    • more relaxation of formality
    • individualization of four saints in front with ceremonial gestures
    • softening body outlines and contour
    • drapery falling with more curves
    • scenes underneath are related to life of the virgins
    • play of color and texture manipulation
    • according to humanists color and texture of clothing meant one was a bad person
    • back of that is the scenes from the life of Christ
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    • Betrayal of Christ
    • Artist: Duccio
    • Era: Proto-Renaissance 
    • Location: Maesta Altarpiece
    • Techniques:
    • continuous narration by showing
    •    - the betrayal of Jesus
    •    - decipals fleeing in terror
    •    - St. Peter chopping the ear off of a high priest servant
    • figures are elongated but have substantial body weight
    • reintroduces shadow and modeling
    • convincing drapery
    • shows motion with figures but feet are too firmly planted
    • s-curved bodies that sway imply motion
    • no recession into space
    • gold background
    • stylized hillside
    • variety of facial expressions - anger in Peter's face, malice in Judissus' face, apprehension and timidity in decipals' faces
    • humanization of religious subject matter
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    • Annunciation of the Death of the Virgin
    • Artist: Duccio
    • Era: Proto-Renaissance
    • Location: Maesta Altarpiece
    • Techniques:
    • attempt at recession into space through coffered ceiling
    • implied movement through cluttered clothing
    • modeling creates volume of body
    • Mary is frail
    • gray skin tones
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    • The Annunciation
    • Artist: Simone Martini
    • Era: International Style, 1333
    • Location: Uffizi Gallery, Florence
    • Techniques:
    • combined French Gothic and Italian Renaissance with Northern Ideals
    • tempera and gold leaf on wood
    • elegant shapes and radiant colors
    • flowing, fluttering lines
    • weightless figures in a spaceless setting
    • iridescent colored wings of the angel Gabriel, they sparkle and shine to give them movement
    • detailed, multi-colored wings
    • gold on gown is heiraldic
    • gold background creates a spiritual realm even though the setting is earth
    • shape of frame is an ornate style of gables - multi-lobed, pointed arch with scalloping on the inside
    • main arch frames the flock of doves that represent the holy spirit
    • Mary is demure, shrinking back
    • she puts down her book of devotions - she is in the presence of royalty
    • she is wearing a deep blue purple robe with gold hem
    • heiraldic colors of a queen of Heaven
    • drama is subordinate to court ritual
    • intricate tracery in late Gothic frame
    • lilies are iconographic symbols of the crucifxion and the ressurection
    • side figures are saints and could have been painted by a student of Martini
    •    - more like Gothic portal sculpture
    •    - more rigid
    •    - still done in his style
    •    - contrasts with naturalism  in center panel
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    • Birth of the Virgin
    • Artist: Pietro Lorenzetti
    • Era: Proto-Renaissance, 1342
    • Techniques:
    • altarpiece
    • tempera on wood
    • queen of the republic, earthly queen
    • architectural place
    • 3 paneled piece but two scenes
    • St. Anne is reclining but is weary, more realistic and emotional
    • box-like stage setting
    • Italian pilazzo
    • both real and fictional architecture with figuration
    • illusion is strengthened by blocked view of room by pillar - creates recession into space
    • Oriental rug promotes Crusades
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    • Allegory of a Good Government
    • Artist: Ambrogio Lorenzetti
    • Era: Proto-Renaissance, 1338-1339
    • Location: Salla Della Pave, Palazzo Pubblico, Siena
    • Techniques:
    • enthroned allegorical figure of good government
    • around him are virtues - justice, prudence, temperance, fortitude, peace, magnanimity, faith, hope, and charity
    • Siena represented the potential good government in the politically unstable Italy
    • wanted to reform entire city
    • supported by angels
    • commissioned inside government office
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    • Peaceful City
    • Artist: Ambrogio Lorenzetti
    • Era: Proto-Renaissance, 1338-1339
    • Location: Allegory of a Good Government, Salla Della Pave, Palazzo Pubblico, Siena
    • Techniques:
    • panoramic view of Siena
    • clustering building market places, chruchs, and streets
    • traffic is peaceful
    • spring time rituals
    • cluster of radiant maidens dancing
    • metaphor of the peaceful commonwealth
    • good business, all markets are open
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    • Peaceful Country
    • Artist: Ambrogio Lorenzetti
    • Era: Proro-Renaissance, 1338-1339
    • LocationAllegory of a Good Government, Salla Della Pave, Palazzo Pubblico, Siena
    • Techniques:
    • birds eye view of an undulating country side
    • farms, villas, castles, and peasants
    • even peasants are successful and content
    • allegorical figure of security flying overhead with a scroll in which promises a made to the safety of the people under her and the good government
    • first true landscape since ancient times
    • careful observation and specific details
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    • Triumph of Death
    • Artist: Francesco Triani
    • Era: Proto-Renaissance, 1330s
    • Location: Campo Santo, Pisa, italy
    • Techniques:
    • corroded fresco
    • group of wealthy men and ladies riding to three coffins in foreground
    • representation three levels of decomposition
    • stench is so bad that they are covering their noses
    • social statement that death is an equal opportunity for all classes
    • even the hermit can not escape death
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    • Ler Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
    • Artist: Limbourg Brothers
    • Era: 15th Century Northern Renaissance, 1413-1416
    • Techniques:
    • Duc de Berry was an avid art collector
    • used of reciting prayers
    • illuminated calendar pages
    • 6 images of aristocracy and 6 images
    • "Office of the Blessed Virgin"
    • read privately at set times during the day
    • affluent burghers could buy it - decentralization of religious factors contributing to the Protestant Reformation
    • 12 months of seasonal tasks
    • above page is Lynette with a chariot of the sun that makes it cycle through the twelve months and zodiac signs
    • displays the duke's relationship with peasants - he is a devout sophisticated man, slightly propaganda
    • integration of secular and religious concerns in art and life
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    • October
    • Artist: Limbourg Brothers
    • Era: 15th Century Northern Renaissance, 1413-1416
    • Techniques:
    • harrower and sewer on horseback, washer women
    • promenade in front of Louvre
    • peasants are flattering the duke's image as a compassionate leade
    • naturalism in architectural detail of Louvre
    • cast shadows
    • figures in foreground and larger than those in background - recession into space

Card Set Information

Renaissance Art (part 1)
2012-10-08 02:31:59

Proto-Renaissance and 15th Century Northern Renaissance
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