pharm untit 2 part 2

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Khristovo
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pharm untit 2 part 2
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2012-10-05 02:56:50
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pharm untit 2 part 2
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  1. Sympathmometic's VS. Xanthenes
    • a)      Sympathomimetic’s: beta adrenergic agents, and they dilate the bronchi through their action on beta-adrenergic receptors·        
    • They result in less mucosal and sub mucosal edema.·        
    • Sympathomimetics also stimulate beta 1 receptors , which results in an increased rate and force of the heart’s contractons.·        
    • Used in the treatment of bronchospasms in asthma, bronchitis, and emphysema (COPD)·        
    • Adverse reactions: dysrhythmia’s, hypotension, tachycardia, anorexia, anxiety, headache, insomnia, nausea, nausea, pallor, perspiration, polyuria, restlessness, vomiting, weakness, and urinary hesitancy and retention. These symptoms get worse with and overdose.b)     
    • Xanthines: act directly to relax the smooth muscle cells of the bronchi, thereby dilating or opening up the bronchi·        
    • They also act directly on the kidneys to produce dieresis·        
    • These drugs cause CNS effects, myocardial stimulation, increased rate  of breathing, effects on metabolism, and release of epinephrine from the adrenal medulla.·         Used as adjunctive therapy to treat the symptoms of bronchospasm in asthma, bronchitis, emphysema and neonatal apnea.·        
    • Adverse reactions include dysrhythmias, flushing, marked hypotension,              
    • tachycardia, headache, insomnia, restlessness, diarrhea, epigastric pain, nausea,              
    • vomiting and rash. ·        
    • Overdosage causes serious adverse reactions that increase in severity. Excessive overdosage may lead to seizures and death without warning.
  2. differentage groups and decongestants
    • a.       Decongestants: directly affect the alpha receptors of blood vessels in the nasal mucosa, causing vasoconstriction. This reduces blood flow, fluids movement, and mucosal edema.
    • b.      Adverse reactions include: nervousness, nausea, dizziness, tachycardia, dysrhythmia, and transient increase in blood pressure.
    • c.       these are NOT to be used in infants and toddlers because of inadvertent overdosesd.      rebound congestion
  3. Asthmaprophylaxis medications
    • a.       Cromolyn sodium: helps treat asthma by slowing down the destruction of sensitized mast cells.
    • b.      Nedocromil sodium: similar actions to those of comolyn.
    • o   These drugs have no antihistaminic, anti-inflammatory , or bronchodilator activity, they are effective only for prophylaxis (prevention of or protection against disease) and should not be used in an acute attack of asthma.
    • c.       These are also used with food allergies, pts with allergic rhinitis, eczema, chronic urticaria and those with postexercise bronchospasm.
    • o   With cromolyn tell the pt and family that the airway should be cleared of as much mucus as possible before taking the drug. Avoid using these drugs when unable to take deep breath and hold it or if having an asthma attack. Take qd at regular intervals.
    • o   With nedocromil tell the pt and family that the inhalation canister must be primed by pressing 3 times before the first use. Repeat this if the canister remains unused for 7 days. Pt should take med at same time qd. In pt that asthma is under control, other asthma meds may be decreased as the pt is stabilized.

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