Chemistry Chapter 15
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----------- dissociate completely into ions in water
---------- dissociate very slightly into ions in water
Kc = ([H3 O][A- ])/([H2 O][HA])
Acids get stronger as
#O's exceed #H's (H's being protons)
Strong acid - H2SeO4 - the number of O atoms exceeds the number of ionizable protons by 2.
Weak acid - (CH3)2CHCOOH is an organic acid having a -COOH group.
Strong base - KOH is a Group 1A(1) hydroxide
Weak base - (CH3)2CHNH2 has a lone pair of electrons on the N and is an amine
Acid Ionization Constant
How do H3O+ and OH- compare in different solutions?
The larger the pKA...
the weaker the acid
Why is HCLO4 a strong acid
greater number difference between oxygen and protons (hydrogen)
pH is the –log of
the hydronium ion concentration
If you have ---------------------- you can assume x is small
a large Pa and a small Ka,
Percent HA dissociation
([HA] dissociated/[HA]initial) * 100
acids with more than (more?) ionizable proton
Remember------------- = 14
pOH + pH =14
LiOH - lithium hydroxide NaOH - sodium hydroxide KOH - potassium hydroxide RbOH - rubidium hydroxide CsOH - cesium hydroxide *Ca(OH)2 - calcium hydroxide *Sr(OH)2 - strontium hydroxide *Ba(OH)2 - barium hydroxide
There are three factors that can be used to argue which acid is stronger when comparing two acids based upon their structure.
- 1)The bond strength of the H-X bond.
- 2)The polarity of the H-X bond.
- 3)The stability of the resulting conjugate base.
Acid strengths can not always be predicted but there are some trends that can be applied to assess acid strength.
- 1)Comparing acids that differ only by their charge and thenumber of protons in their formula.
- 2Comparing binary acids across aperiod.
- 3Comparing binary acids down a group.
- 4Comparing oxoacids thatdiffer by the central atom.
- 5Comparing oxoacids with the same central atombut that differ by the number of oxygen atoms in their formula.
- HCl - hydrochloric acid
- HNO3 - nitric acid
- H2SO4 - sulfuric acid
- HBr - hydrobromic acidHI - hydroiodic acid (also known as hydriodic acid)
- HClO4 - perchloric acid
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