Chemistry Chapter 15

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Chemistry Chapter 15
2012-10-15 08:30:55
Chapter 15 ECU Chemistry 1160

Chapter 15
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  1. 1
  2. ----------- dissociate completely into ions in water
    Strong ACIDS
  3. ---------- dissociate very slightly into ions in water
    weak acids
  4. Acid-dissociation constant
    Kc = ([H3 O][A- ])/([H2 O][HA])
  5. Acids get stronger as
    #O's exceed #H's (H's being protons)
  6. classify H2SeO4
    Strong acid - H2SeO4 - the number of O atoms exceeds the number of ionizable protons by 2.
  7. classify (CH3)2CHCOOH
    Weak acid - (CH3)2CHCOOH is an organic acid having a -COOH group.
  8. classify KOH
    Strong base - KOH is a Group 1A(1) hydroxide
  9. classify (CH3)2CHNH2
    Weak base - (CH3)2CHNH2 has a lone pair of electrons on the N and is an amine
  10. Acid Ionization Constant
  11. How do H3O+ and OH- compare in different solutions?
  12. pH=
  13. pKa=
  14. The larger the pKA...
    the weaker the acid
  15. Why is HCLO4 a strong acid
    greater number difference between oxygen and protons (hydrogen)
  16. pH is the –log of
    the hydronium ion concentration
  17. If you have ---------------------- you can assume x is small
    a large Pa and a small Ka,
  18. Percent HA dissociation
    ([HA] dissociated/[HA]initial) * 100
  19. polyprotic acids
    acids with more than (more?) ionizable proton
  20. Remember------------- = 14
    pOH + pH =14
  21. Strong Bases
    LiOH - lithium hydroxide    NaOH - sodium hydroxide    KOH - potassium hydroxide    RbOH - rubidium hydroxide    CsOH - cesium hydroxide    *Ca(OH)2 - calcium hydroxide    *Sr(OH)2 - strontium hydroxide    *Ba(OH)2 - barium hydroxide
  22. There are three factors that can be used to argue which acid is stronger when comparing two acids based upon their structure.
    • 1)The bond strength of the H-X bond.
    • 2)The polarity of the H-X bond. 
    • 3)The stability of the resulting conjugate base. 
  23. Acid strengths can not always be predicted but there are some trends that can be applied to assess acid strength.
    • 1)Comparing acids that differ only by their charge and thenumber of protons in their formula.
    • 2Comparing binary acids across aperiod.
    • 3Comparing binary acids down a group.
    • 4Comparing oxoacids thatdiffer by the central atom.
    • 5Comparing oxoacids with the same central atombut that differ by the number of oxygen atoms in their formula.
  24. Strong acids
    • HCl - hydrochloric acid
    • HNO3 - nitric acid
    • H2SO4 - sulfuric acid
    • HBr - hydrobromic acidHI - hydroiodic acid (also known as hydriodic acid)
    • HClO4 - perchloric acid