ANSC 260

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Author:
mct
ID:
175722
Filename:
ANSC 260
Updated:
2012-10-10 11:48:35
Tags:
Part Two
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Description:
Chapt. 4-5
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  1. Monosaaccharides
    One sugar molecule
  2. Disaccharides
    Two sugar molecules linked together by an alpha or beta glycosidic bonds
  3. Oligosaccharides
    4-10 sugar molecules linked together by alpha or beta glycosidic bonds
  4. Polysaccharides
    >10 sugar loecules linked together by alpah or beta glycosidic bonds
  5. Amylose
    Long chain of alpoha, 1,4-linked glucoses; found in plants (parts of starch)
  6. Amylopectin
    Long chain of alpha 1,4-linked glucoses with alpha 1,6 branches; found in plants (part of starch)
  7. Cellulose
    Long chain of beta 1,4-linked glucose molecules, structural component of plants
  8. Glycogen
    Long chain of alpha 1,4-linked glucoses with many alpha 1,6 branches; found in animals (storage form of carbohydrate in animals)
  9. Glycogenesis
    Formation of glycogen from glucose
  10. Glycogenolysis
    Release of glucose from glycogen
  11. Lipids
    Any fat-soluble (lipophilic), naturally-occuring molecule, such as fats, oils, waxes, cholestrol, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, phospholipids, and others
  12. Fatty acid
    A carboxylic acid, often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated
  13. Saturated
    Fatty acids that contain no double bonds between C atoms
  14. Unsaturated
    Fatty acids that contain one or more double bonds between C atoms
  15. Cis configuration
    Arrangement of H atoms around a carbon-carbon double bond in a fatty acid in which the H atoms are on the same side of the hydrocarbon chain
  16. Trans configuration
    Arrangement of H atoms around a carbon-carbon double bond in fatty acid in which the H atoms are on opposite sides of the hydrocarbon chain
  17. Hydrogenation
    Process of removing carbon-carbon double bonds in a fatty acid by adding hyrdogen atoms
  18. Essential fatty acid
    A fatty acid required in the diet because of an inability of the animal to synthesize that fatty acid.
  19. Gluconeogenesis
    Synthesis of glucose from non-glucose precursors
  20. Glycolysis
    Breakdown of glucose for energy
  21. Triglyceride
    A glycerol esterified to three fatty acids; the main component of animal and plant lipid stores
  22. Compound lipids
    Esters of fatty acids containing non-lipid substances
  23. Phospholipid
    Derivative of tryglycerides containing glycerol, 2 fatty acids and 1 phosphate group
  24. Glycolipid
    A phospholipids to which a carbohydrate chain is attached
  25. Lipoprotein
    A biochemical assembly that contains both proteins and lipids
  26. Bile salts
    Cholesterol-based detergent involved in reducing lipid droplet size in the intestine; essentail for efficient fat absorption
  27. Micelle
    Small lipid droplet in the intestine containing fatty acids, monoglycerides, phospholipids and cholesterol, with bile salts on the surface
  28. Chylomicro
    Lipid droplets exported from the intestinal cell following lipid absorption.  Contains triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol and protein
  29. Beta oxidation
    Sequential removal of 2-carbon units from a fatty acid chain for the production of energy
  30. Eicosanoids
    Hormone like derivatives of 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids (arachidonic acid and EPA)

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