Restorative Art I Test 2

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Restorative Art I Test 2
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2012-10-06 15:58:37
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Restorative Art I Test 2
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  1. occipitofrontalis
    muscle of the cranium

    the rear or posterior of the occipitofrontalis is referred to as the epicranius muscle.

    the front of anterior portion of the occipitofrontalis is referred to as the frontalis muscle.

    it is a very large muscle that covers the top and sides of the scull

    this muscle is composed of two broad bellies which are connected by the galea aponeurotica or epicranial aponeurosis
  2. auricularis (anterior, posterior, superior)
    muscle of the cranium

    these are three thin muscles in the region of the ear

    they have more effect on the movement of the scalp than of the ear

    the auricular muscles have no influence on surface form
  3. temporalis
    muscle of the cranium

    it is also a muscle of mastication

    this muscle brings the teeth together

    it has no effect on surface form

    a broad, radiating muscle shaped like a fan

    this muscle is the strongest of the chewing muscles
  4. masseter (2)
    muscle of mastication

    it receives its name from its action, chewing or mastication

    it is located on the side of the face

    when contracted, it raises the lower jaw
  5. pterygoideus medialas (2)
    pterygoideus lateralis (2)
    muscle of mastication

    they do not affect the surface form

    both pair are commonly known as just the pterygoids

    they are deep muscles that permit side-to-side movement lo the lower jaw

    the muscles originate from the process of the sphenoid bone

    the pterygoids do not actually tear the food, they grind the food
  6. orbicularis oculi (2)
    muscle of the eyelid

    this is the muscle of reflection or thought

    orbicularis refers to sphincter. oculi refers to eye.

    this is a broad thin sphincter muscle surrounding the eye.
  7. corrugator (2)
    muscle of the eyelid

    known as the frowning muscle

    it is small, narrow, and pyramidal in shape

    this muscle is located at the medial end of the eyebrow

    when the two corrugators contract, the produce vertical furrows between the eye brows

    (think of corrugated paper or a sheet of corrugated tin)
  8. levator palpebrae superioris (2)
    the elevator of the upper eyelid

    it originates deep in the eye socket

    contraction of this muscle raises the upper eyelid

    this muscle is long, thin, flat and triangrular in shape

    (when it is impossible to close the upper eyelid, this muscle may be severed)
  9. procerus
    muscle of the nose

    it is a long, thin slip of muscle

    when this muscle contracts, the medial ends of the eyebrows are drawn down

    it forms transvers wrinkles across the root of the nose (transverse interciliary sulci)

    it extends vertically from the lower part of the nasal bone to the lower part of the forehead
  10. nasalis
    muscle of the nose

    this is the muscle ot the lower part of the nose

    it serves to elevate, dilate, depress, and contract the nostrils

    the muscle fibers run horizontal (across) the nose

    (as opposed th the procerus muscle which runs vertically, up the nose)
  11. ORBICULARIS ORIS
    Muscle of the Mouth

    • It is known as the puckering or whistling muscle.
    •      
    • This is the sphincter muscle which encircles the mouth.

    Contraction of the Orbicularis Oris closes and puckers the lips.

    Unlike the sphincter of the eye, it is composed primarily of fibers from other facial and lip muscles.
  12. QUADRATUS LABII SUPERIORIS (2)
    • Muscles of the Mouth
    • ·        
    • The QLS is a group of three muscles which act in independently or in unison.

    The muscles are broad in origin, extending along the entire lower margin of the eye socket.

    • The three muscles of the QLS group are the:
    •        Levator Labii Superioris Alaeque Nasi (2)
    •        Levator Labii Superioris (2)
    •        Zygomaticus Minor (2)
  13. LEVATOR LABII SUPERIORIS ALAEQUE NASI (2) (of the QLS)
    Muscles of the Mouth

    • Levator……………Elevator
    • Labii……………….Lips
    • Superioris………...Superior
    • Alaeque…………..Wing
    • Nasi……………….Nose

    This is the medial muscle of the QLS

    It is often called the common elevator

    It may be described as a long narrow slip running beside the nose.

    Alaeque nasi is Latin for wing of the nose.

    The Elvis muscle (or the sneering muscle).
  14. LEVATOR LABII SUPERIORIS (2) (of the QLS)
    Muscles of the Mouth

    The middle (or intermediate) muscle of the QLS group.

    It is lateral to the LLSAN.

    This muscle raises the upper lip.
  15. ZYGOMATICUS MINOR (2) (of the QLS)
    Muscles of the Mouth

    This is the most lateral muscle of the QLS.

    It inserts into the upper lip at the angle of the mouth.

    It raises the corners of the mouth and is used in smiling.

    (But it is not known as the smiling muscle)
  16. ZYGOMATICUS MAJOR (2)
    Muscle of the Mouth

    The laughing or smiling muscle.

    This muscle is lateral to the QLS group.

    It draws the angle of the mouth backward and upward.

    It helps to crate the prominence of the nasolabial fold, and contributes to the fullness of the angelus oris eminence
  17. LEVATOR ANGULI ORIS (2)
    Muscles of the Mouth

    This muscle is the elevator of angle of the mouth.

    It is located near the region of the canine tooth, and originates from the canine fossa.

    It is hidden behind the QLS group.

    It is often called the Caninus muscle.
  18. BUCCINATOR (2)
    Muscles of the Mouth

    This muscle is called the “trumpeters” muscle.

    It is a quadrilateral muscle in the soft area of the cheek

    It is the principal muscle of the cheek and the lateral wall of the mouth.

    Contraction of this muscle compresses the cheek.
  19. RISORIUS (2)
    Muscles of the Mouth

    This muscle creates a “false smile” (or a smirk).

    It is a narrow superficial muscle that runs across the cheek

    The risorius originates in the fascia over the masseter muscle, and is antagonistic to the buccinator
  20. DEPRESSOR ANGULI ORIS (TRIANGULARIS) (2)
    Muscles of the Mouth

    This is a three side muscle, hence the alternate name-triangularis

    This muscle approaches the mouth from below, and when contracted it depresses the angle of the mouth.

    It contributes to the fullness or prominence of the angulus oris eminence
  21. DEPRESSOR LABII INFERIORIS (QUADRATUS) (2)
    Muscles of the Mouth

    This muscle approaches the lower lip from below and is associated with fear or distaste.

    • When contracted, this muscle…
    •           Pulls the lower lip downward and a little to the side
    •           Changes the form of the line of mouth closure.
    •           Causes the angulus oris sulcus to become oblique in form.
  22. MENTALIS (1)
    Muscles of the Mouth

    It may raise and protrude the lower lip

    The mentalis muscle inserts into the “skin-of-the-chin”

    It is located on the prominence of the mental eminence and between the two depressor labii inferioris muscles

    Dimple on the chin.
  23. PLATYSMA (1)
    Muscles of the Neck

    The platysma is a broad, flat, and superficial muscle.

    The muscle is important to surface form as it softens the contours of the neck.

    It arises from the fascia covering the large muscles in the region of the collarbone, ribs, and shoulder.
  24. STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID (2)
    Muscles of the Neck

    The SCM is a thick muscle that passes obliquely across the side of the neck.

    This muscle arises at two points, the sternum and the clavicle; very close to the midline.

    A small triangular interval lies between these two points

    This interval or space is important to embalmers.

    Contraction of the SCM moves the head sideways.

    Alternate action of the SCM rotates the head.

    When coordinated the SCM pulls the head forward.
  25. DIGASTRICUS (2)
    Muscles of the Neck

    This is a double-bellied muscle that lies below the body of the mandible.

    The anterior belly of the two muscles is responsible for one form of the chords of the neck.

    (an acquired facial feature)
  26. Describe the large muscle that covers the top of the head.
    OCCIPITOFRONTALIS (1)
  27. Describe the masseter muscle.
    It receives its name form its action, chewing or mastication.

    It is located on the side of the face.

    When contracted it raises the lower jaw.
  28. Describe the muscle of fear or distaste
    DEPRESSOR LABII INFERIORIS (QUADRATUS) (2)
  29. Describe the muscles of the nose.
    PROCERUS (1)

    NASALIS (1)
  30. Describe the puckering or whistling muscle.
    ORBICULARIS ORIS
  31. Describe the Zygomaticus major. 
    laughing or smiling muscle
  32. Describe three muscles of the neck.
    PLATYSMA (1)

    STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID (2)

    DIGASTRICUS (2)
  33. Name the muscle of mastication that is shaped like a fan.
    TEMPORALIS (2)
  34. Name the three muscles superficial the temporalis muscle.
  35. Name three muscle of the neck
    PLATYSMA (1)

    STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID (2)

    DIGASTRICUS (2)
  36. Name three muscles of mastication.
    TEMPORALIS (2)

    MASSETER (2)

    • PTERYGOIDEUS MEDIALAS (2)
    • PTERYGOIDEUS LATERALIS (2)
  37. Name three muscles of the cranium.
    OCCIPITOFRONTALIS (1)

    AURICULAR (ANTERIOR, POSTERIOR, SUPERIOR)

    TEMPORALIS (2)
  38. Name two muscles of the nose
    PROCERUS (1)

    NASALIS (1)
  39. Place the QLS muscles in their proper order (viewing from left to right).
    • ZYGOMATICUS MINOR (2)
    • LEVATOR LABII SUPERIORIS (2)
    • LEVATOR LABII SUPERIORIS ALAEQUE NASI (2)
  40. This muscle contributes to the fullness of the Angulus Oris Eminence.
    • ZYGOMATICUS MAJOR (2)
    • DEPRESSOR ANGULI ORIS (TRIANGULARIS) (2)
  41. What are other names for the Common Elevator?
    LEVATOR LABII SUPERIORIS ALAEQUE NASI (2) (of the QLS)

    Levator
  42. What are the three muscles of the QLS?
    Levator Labii Superioris Alaeque Nasi (2)

    Levator Labii Superioris (2)

    Zygomaticus Minor (2)
  43. What do the Petrygoids do?
    they grind food
  44. What does SCM stand for?
    STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID (2)
  45. What is another name for the Corrugators?
    the frowning muscle
  46. What is the muscle of reflection or thought?
    ORBICULARIS OCULI (2)
  47. What is the proper name for the Triangularus Muscle?
    DEPRESSOR ANGULI ORIS
  48. What muscle is important to a trumpet player?
    DEPRESSOR ANGULI ORIS
  49. What muscle is most important to embalmers?
  50. What muscle is named after a dogs tooth?
    LEVATOR ANGULI ORIS (2)
  51. Which muscle is lateral to the QLS group?
    ZYGOMATICUS MAJOR (2)
  52. Which muscle is responsible for a false smile?
    RISORIUS (2)
  53. Which muscle is the smiling or laughing muscle?
    ZYGOMATICUS MAJOR (2)
  54. Which muscle may create a dimple on the chin?
    MENTALIS (1)
  55. Define how a wrinkle or furrow is affected by muscles.
    Wrinkles cross the direction of muscles at right angles

    Muscles with fibers that run vertically will cause furrows that run horizontally

    Muscles with fibers that run horizontally will cause furrows that run vertically
  56. Define quadrilateral muscles and sphincter muscles.
    • QUADRILATERAL MUSCLES
    •          The fibers are parallel and run directly from the origin to their insertion

    • SPHINCTER MUSCLES
    • ·        An encircling muscle that surrounds a natural orifice
  57. Define origin and Insertion if muscles.
    • ORIGIN
    •       Refers to the end of a muscle which is attached to a fixed point
    •       On the face, the origin is usually on an immovable bone or cartilage

    • INSERTION
    •        Refers to the end of a muscle which is attached to a movable part of the body or to the skin
    •        It is upon this part that the pull of the muscle is applied
    •        For every muscle pulling in one direction there is another muscle which returns the body part to its original position
  58. What is a double bellied muscle?
    Two fleshy portions that are separated by a tendon or aponeurosis
  59. Define the term aponeurosis.
    A flattened, ribbon shaped tendon

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