Blood Chemistry Lab

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Author:
kris10leejmu
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175755
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Blood Chemistry Lab
Updated:
2012-11-14 21:26:01
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Lab Tech ll Practical
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Midterm Practical Lab Tech ll
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  1. Describe the i-STAT 1 (HESKA), VetScan i-STAT (ABAXIS)
    hand held machine with own power supply
  2. What kind of sample do we use for the i-STAT 1/VetScan i-STAT?  Which tube do we use to collect the blood in?
    • whole blood - lithium or balance heparin (green top tube)
    • whole blood - no anticoagulant (red top tube)
  3. How long does it take for the results of the i-STAT 1/VetScan i-STAT?
    2 minutes
  4. Does the i-STAT 1/VetScan i-STAT have a portable printer?
    yes
  5. Do we need to calibrate the i-STAT 1/VetScan i-STAT?
    no
  6. How do we do quality control for the i-STAT 1/VetScan i-STAT?
    • it is built in
    • semi-annual software updates available
  7. Which single cartridges are available for the i-STAT 1/VetScan i-STAT?
    glucose and creatinine
  8. Does the i-STAT 1/VetScan i-STAT have coagulation screening (ACT)?
    yes
  9. What are some disadvantages to the i-STAT 1/VetScan i-STAT?
    • manual is confusing with steps omitted
    • Heska changes models and machines frequently which outdates hardware
    • poor customer service from Heska
  10. What do the test cartridges include for the i-STAT 1/VetScan i-STAT?
    • electrolytes
    • lactate
    • acid-base status
    • ionized calcium
    • blood gases
    • glucose
    • creatinine
    • ACT (activated coaguation time)
  11. Which tests are not available for the i-STAT 1/VetScan i-STAT?
    • no liver or pancreatic enzymes
    • no T-4
  12. Are there species ranges available for the i-STAT 1/VetScan i-STAT?
    no
  13. What kind of tube do we use to collect blood for the fibrinogen test?
    • green top tube (lithium heparin)
    • purple top tube (EDTA)
  14. How do you run the plasma fibrinogen test?
    • fill 2 hematocrit tubes with freshly drawn and anticoagulated (heparin or EDTA) whole blood
    • centrifuge the tubes
    • break 1 tube and read it on the refractometer and record the plasma protein concentration (g/dl)
    • incubate the other tube for 3 minutes in the 58 degree celcius water
    • the fibrinogen will precipitate as a white ring about the RBC
    • re-centrifuge the tube after 3 minutes in the warmer
    • break the tube and measure the plasma protein concentration using the refractometere
    • subtract the total protein value of the second tube from the first tube
    • multiply the results by 1000 to obtain the fibrinogen measurement in mg/dl
  15. What does the SNAP cPL (Idexx) test test for?
    canine lipase levels specific to the pancreas
  16. How long does it take us to get results from the SNAP cPL test?
    10 minutes
  17. What type of results do we get from the SNAP cPL test?
    normal or abnormal
  18. Can the SNAP cPL test be used in the snap shot reader?
    yes
  19. What kind of sample do we use and what tube do we collect the sample in for the SNAP cPL test?
    • serum only
    • tiger top tube
  20. Does hemolysis, lipemia, or icterus affect the results of the SNAP cPL test?
    no
  21. How do we read the results for the SNAP cPL test?
    • two dots means abnormal
    • one dot or one dot and a faded dot means normal
  22. What is quality control?
    acquiring values from a known substance in order to verify the accuracy of a machine or technique
  23. What is calibration?
    the physical adjustment of the device or its data base in order to change the baseline
  24. What is the check strip for the TRUEread Glucose Meter?
    electronic quality control
  25. When do we use the check strip for the TRUEread Glucose Meter?
    • using the meter for the first time
    • results are questionable
    • meter was dropped or banged
  26. What is the Glucose Control Test for the TRUEread Glucose Meter and when would we use it?
    • aqueous solution
    • using the meter for the first time
    • opening a new vial of test strips
    • meter was dropped or banged
    • occasionally as test strips are used
  27. What is the code chip for the TRUEread Glucose Meter?
    • calibrates the machine to a specific batch of test strips
    • it is essential to match the test strips to the code chip before every test
  28. What kind of blood do we use for the TRUEread Glucose Meters?
    recommended using capillary blood with no anticoagulant
  29. If we can't run the TRUEread Glucose Meter right away what kind of blood should we get and what tube should we put it in and why?
    • venous sample
    • gray top tube (sodium fluoride)
    • anticoagulant that inhibits glycolysis by the blood cells in the patient sample and can preserve the glucose in the blood for 3 days
  30. What are common errors with the i-STAT 1/VetScan i-STAT?
    • overfilling cartridge
    • air bubbles
    • damaging cartridges when snapping to close cover over well
    • not handling cartridges by sides (causes contamination)
    • rough handling of cartridges (bursts calibration pack)
  31. How do you run the VetTest?
    • transfer a portion of your sample to a serum cup
    • have a kim-wipe ready with easy reach (needed for wiping pipette tip within 20 second window)
    • read and follow prompts
    • push slide loading tray in gently
    • if you have a timing error after wiping the pipette tip press E and continue
  32. What are some common errors with the VetTest?
    • rushing prompts
    • jamming slides
    • timing errors
  33. How do you run the Catalyst Dx?
    • Transfer a portion of your sample to a serum cup.
    • Ensure you do not have air bubbles in your cup
    • Place the slides and remove the black clip by pulling it off
    • Press run to run the sample
  34. What do you do after you have run a sample in the Catalyst Dx?
    empty the waste drawer and refill the pipette tip drawer
  35. The Catalyst Dx is an upgrade from the _____.
    VetTest
  36. What is unique about the Catalyst Dx?
    it can run urine samples
  37. What do the urine samples determine in the Catalyst Dx?
    protein:urine ratio for very early renal disease detection
  38. What does B.U.N. stand for?
    Blood Urea Nitrogen
  39. Should you refrigerate the BUN Reagent Strips?
    no
  40. What kind of sample should you use for the BUN Reagent Strips?
    • whole blood
    • serum
    • heparinized plasma
  41. How long does the BUN Reagent Strips take to run?
    1 minute
  42. What are the normal value ranges for BUN for canine, feline, equine for the BUN Reagent Strips?
    • canine:  10 - 20 mg/dl
    • feline:  10 - 30 mg/dl
    • equine:  10 - 25 mg/dl
  43. Whold blood with _____ as a preservative should be avoided when using the BUN Reagent Strips.
    fluoride
  44. If a patient is severely dehydrated, what kind of sample should we use for the BUN Reagent Strips?
    serum or plasma only
  45. Should we touch the pad area on the BUN Reagent Strips?
    no
  46. How do you run the BUN Reagent Stips test?
    • apply 1 large drop of sample to the pad
    • wait 30 seconds
    • wipe sample off with a tissue - use moderate pressure evenly on the reagent pad area and remove all excess sample
    • wait an additional 30 seconds
    • compare color of the pad with the color chart to obtain BUN values
  47. What does the TRUEread Blood Glucose Meter test for?
    blood glucose only
  48. What kind of sample do we use for the TRUEread Blood Glucose Meter and what tubes should we use (there are 2 methods)
    • 1.  whole blood without any anticoagulant, directly and immediately apply blood to test strip from syringe
    • 2.  whole blood collected into a sodium fluroide vacuum tube (gray top)
  49. What do we usually use the TRUEread Blood Glucose Meter for in practice?
    • generating glucose curves
    • glucose monitoring for diabetic patients
  50. What kind of sample do we use for the VetScan Classic?
    • serum
    • heparinized plasma (lithium heparin only)
    • heparinized whole blood (lithium heparin only)
    • NEVER USE EDTA
  51. What do we use for the VetScan Classic to test?
    rotors
  52. Does the VetScan offer single tests?
    no, only panels
  53. How long does it take to run a sample in the VetScan?
    15 minutes
  54. Where do we store the rotors for the VetScan?  What is the disadvantage of this?
    • in the refrigerator
    • takes up a lot of space
  55. If we drop a rotor can we still use it in the VetScan?
    no
  56. What other machine is the VetScan compatiable with?
    HMII (Hematology machine)
  57. Are the rotors for the VetScan self calibrating?
    yes
  58. Which chemistry machine do we have that does not offer a lipase test?
    VetScan
  59. Which animals can we not use the VetScan on?
    avain and reptiles
  60. What is the main difference between the VetScan and the VetScan VS2?
    the VS2 gives faster results (~12 minutes)
  61. What kind of sample can we use for the VetTest?
    • serum
    • plasma
    • NEVER USE WHOLE BLOOD
  62. Are individual tests and panels available for the VetTest?
    yes
  63. What is maximum amount of slides that can be run in the VetTest at one time?
    12
  64. What kind of species can we use the VetTest for?
    • dog
    • cat
    • horse
    • cow
    • sheep
    • goats
    • birds
    • ferret
    • reptiles
    • llama
    • primates
    • rodents
    • rabbits
  65. What are spotting errors usually due to?
    formation of fibrin strand in plasma after centrifuging
  66. Once you have entered in all the patient information and put in the slides, how do you run the VetTest?
    • Remove pipettor from the holder
    • attach a new tip firmly
    • replace the pipettor in the holder and wait for screen prompts
    • do not place tip into sample until prompted
    • when prompted on the display, place tip into sample keeping the pipettor vertical
    • press and release button on pipettor
    • keep the tip in the sample
    • SINGLE BEEP signals the begin of aspiration, keep the tip in the sample until the next signal
    • DOUBLE BEEP meand to lift the tip out of the sample, wait for the next signal
    • TRIPLE BEEP means to carefully wipe the tip with a twistind motion with a Kim-Wipe, immediately insert pipettor into holder (must be done within 20 seconds)
    • SINGLE BEEP means start of analysis
    • TRIPLE BEEP means end of analysis
  67. What total plasma proteins are we determining with the plasma fibrinogen test?
    albumin and globulins
  68. The plasma fibrinogen test is mainly used in horses, which plasma protein is significant in horses?
    globulins
  69. What is fibrinogen?
    a protein synthesized by the liver and in horses is used to diagnose and monitor a variety of inflammatory conditions
  70. What are the normal levels of fibrinogen in a horse?
    200 - 400 mg/dl
  71. What kind of sample do we use for the i-STAT 1?
    • whole blood (lithium heparin/balanced heparin or no anticoagulant)
    • NOT EDTA or ammonium heparin
  72. What do we always use for cats when we are collecting a sample for the i-STAT 1?
    an anticoagulant
  73. If we are running an ACT test in the i-STAT 1 what kind of sample do we use?
    no anticoagulant

  74. Is this Snap cPL test normal or abnormal?
    abnormal

  75. What is this?
    BUN Reagent Strips

  76. What is this?
    Catalyst Dx

  77. What is this?
    i-Stat 1 (Heska)

  78. What is this?
    TRUEread Glucose Meter

  79. What is this?
    VetScan i-Stat (Abaxis)

  80. What is this?
    VetScan VS2

  81. What is this?
    VetTest
  82. Which tube yields plasma suitable for chemistry analysis?
    • green top
    • lithium heparin
  83. Which tube inhibits glycolysis?
    • gray top
    • sodium flouride/potassium oxalate
  84. Which tube yields serum?
    • tiger top
    • serum separator
  85. Which tube is suitable for collection when using the SCA 2000?
    • blue top
    • sodium citrate
  86. Which tube is used for performing an activated clotting time assay?

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