Sociology Test 2

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Sociology Test 2
2012-10-15 10:19:07

Chapters 4,5,6
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  1. personality
    a person's typical patterns of attitudes, needs, characteristics and behavior
  2. Impacts of Isolation on social development
    Isabelle and Genie's cases. Romanian orphanages. Describe.
  3. Primate Studies
    Harlow's research on rhesus monkeys. Describe.
  4. Does hereditary play a role?
    Studies of Identical twins raised apart. Describe.
  5. the self
    a distinctive identity that sets us apart from others, continues to change and develop throughout our lives
  6. Looking Glass Self
    • 3 phases: 
    • 1)Imagine how we present ourselves to others
    • 2)Imagine how others evaluate us
    • 3)Develop some sort of feelingsabout ourselves as a result of the interacts.

    Self develops from an individual's "imagination" of how others view us.

    Charles Horton Cooley
  7. States of the self
    model developed of how self develops - George Herbert Mead

    • 1)preparation stage - imitate the world around them, begin to understand symbols
    • 2)play stage - become aware of social relationships -> pretend to be other people, "role" playing
    • 3)game stage - 8 or 9 years, consider several tasks and relationships simultaneously, grasp not only their own social positions but those around them
  8. generalized other
    viewpoints, attitudes and expectations of society as a whole that a child takes into account in their behavior
  9. Significant other
    invidiuals who are most important in the development of the self
  10. Theory of the Self
    • self begins at priviledged central position in a person's world
    • - young children picture selves as focus of everything
    • - as people mature -> self changes and reflects greater concern about reactions of others
  11. Presentation of the Self
    • Irving Goffman
    • -suggested that many daily activities involve attempts to convey impressions of who we are
    • -individuals learn to slant presentation of self to create distinctive appearances and satisfy particular audience

    ex - aces and bombers
  12. impression management
    the altering of one's presentation of self  to create distinctive appearances for different audiences
  13. dramaturgical approach
    • people resemble performers in action 
    • ex: clerk might try to appear busier than actually is if supervisor present
  14. face-work
    the efforts people make to maintain the proper image and avoid public embarassment
  15. Progression of the work of Cooley, Mead and Goffman's work. Describe.
    • Cooley stressed process by which we create a self
    • Mead focused on how self deveops as we learn to interact with others.
    • Goffman emphasized ways in which we consciously create images of ourselves for others
  16. 4 stages of cognitive theory of development

    Jean Piaget - newborns have no sense of self in looking-glass self
    • 1) sensomotor - young children use their senses to make discoveries
    • 2) Preoperational - children begin to use words & symbols to distinguish objects and ideas
    • 3) operational - children engage in logical thinking
    • 4) formal operational - adolescents beome capable of sophistcated abstract thought and can deal with ideas and values in a logical manner.
  17. What are the agents of socialization
    Family, school, peer groups, mass media, workplace, religion, state (government)
  18. gender role
    expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males and females
  19. rites of passage
    a means of dramatizing and validating changes in a person's status
  20. life course approach
    the process of socialization continues through all stages of the life cycle.
  21. youthhood and emergeing adulthood
    coined to describe the prolonged ambiguous status that young people in their 20s experience
  22. anticipatory socialization
    processes of socialization in which a person "reherses" for future positions, occupations, and social relationships

    ex: high school students beginning to consider what colleges they may attend
  23. resocialization
    the process of discarding former behavior patterns and accepting new ones as part of a transition in one's life

    ex: reform schools, therapy groups, prisions, political indoctrination camps
  24. total institution
    coined by Goffman to refer to an instution that regulates all aspects of a person's life under a single authority.

    ex: prison, the military, mental hospital, convent
  25. degradation ceremony
    an aspect of the socialization process within some total institutions, in which people are subjected to humiliating rituals

    ex: person entering prison stripped of all clothing and belongings
  26. midlife crisis
    stressful period of self-evaluation in which they realize that they have not achieved basic goals and ambitions and have little time left to do so.
  27. sandwich generation
    adults who simultaneously try to meet competing needs of their parents and their children
  28. Phases of retirement by Robert Atchley
    • Preretirement - anticipatory celebration
    • Near Pharse - established date of departure
    • Honeymoon Phase - euphoric peroid where person does things they never had time for before
    • Disenchantment Phase - sense of letdown or depression as retirees cope with new life
    • Reorientation Phase - development of more realistic view of alternatives
    • Stability Phase - person has learned to deal with life in a reasonable and comfortable fashion
    • Termination phase - no longer able to engage in basic, day-to-day activities or self care
  29. social interaction
    ways in which people respond to one another whether face-to-face or over phone or computer
  30. status
    any of the full range of socially defined positions within a large group or society, from the lowest to the highest
  31. ascribed status
    assigned to a person by society without regard for the person's unique talents or characteristics.
  32. achieved status
    comes to us largely through our own efforts
  33. master status
    status that dominates others and thereby determines a person's general position in society
  34. social role
    set of expectations for people who occupy a given social position or status
  35. role conflict
    occurs when incompatible expectations arise from two or more social positions held by the same person
  36. role strain
    the difficulty that arises when the same social position imposes conflicting demands and expectations

    ex: officers of Navajo nation Police department Peacemaking, worry about appearing too soft or "taking care of their own" and also feeling strain of being considered "too Navajo" or "not Navajo enough"
  37. role exit

    Helen Rose Fuchs Ebaugh
    the process of disengagement from a role that is central to one's self-identity in order to establish a new role and identity

    ex: ex convicts, divorcees, recovering alcoholics, etc
  38. 4 stages of role exit
    • 1) doubt - person experiences frustration, burnout or unhappiness with accustomed status
    • 2) Search for alternatives 
    • 3)Action stage or Departure 
    • 4) Creation of new identity
  39. Group
    any number of people with similar norms, values, and expectations who interact with one another on a regular basis
  40. primary group
    a small group characterized by intimate, face-to-face association and cooperation
  41. secondary group
    a formal, impersonal group in which there is little social interaction or mutual understanding
  42. in-group
    any group or category to which people feel they belong
  43. out-group
    a group or category to which people feel they do not belong
  44. reference group
    any group that individuals use as a standard for evaluating themselves
  45. coalition
    a temporary or permanent alliance geared toward a common goal
  46. social network
    a series of social relationships that links a person directly to others, and through them indirectly to more people
  47. social instutions
    organized patterns of beliefs and behavior centered on basic socail needs
  48. 5 Major tasks / functional pre-requisites that a society or relatively permanent group must accomplish to survive

    Functionalist approach to social institutions
    • 1) replacing personnel
    • 2)Teaching new recruits
    • 3)Producing and distributing goods and services
    • 4)Preserving order
    • 5) Providing and maintaining a sense of purpose
  49. formal organization
    group designed for a special purpose and structured for maximum efficiency
  50. bureaucracy
    a component of formal organization that uses rules and hierarchical ranking to achieve efficiency
  51. Max Weber's Ideal Type of bureaucracy
    • 1) Division of labor - specialized experts perform specific tasks
    • 2) Hierarchy of authority - each position is under the supervision of a higher authority
    • 3) Written rules and regulations
    • 4) Impersonality - dictate that officials perform duties without giving consideration to people as indivuduals
    • 5)Employment based on technical qualifications
  52. alienation
    a condition of estrangement or dissociation from the surrounding society
  53. trained incapacity
    workers become so specialized that they develop blind spots and fail to notice obvious problems
  54. goal displacement
    overzealous conformity to offical regulations

    coined by Robert Merton
  55. Peter principle
    every employee within a hierarchy tends to rise to his or her level of imcompetence
  56. bureaucratization
    the process by which a group, organization, or social movement becomes increasingly bureaucratic
  57. iron law of obligarchy
    describes how even a democratic organization will eventually develop into a bureaucracy ruled by a few
  58. obligarchy
    a bureaucracy ruled by a few
  59. classical theory / scientific management approach of formal organizations
    workers are motivated almost entirely by economic rewards
  60. Human relations approach
    emphasizes the role of people, communication, and participation in a bureaucracy
  61. mechanical solidarity
    in socieities where there is minimal division of labor, a collective consciousness develops that emphasizes group solidarity
  62. organic solidarity
    a collective consciousness resting on the need a society's members have for one another
  63. Gemeinschaft
    close-knit community

    typical of rural life, small community where individuals have the same background and life experiences, social change limited
  64. Gesellschaft
    impersonal mass society

    community that is characteristic of modern urban life, most people strangers, social control rests on laws and legally defined punishments, social change important aspect of life
  65. Lenski's Stages of sociocultural evolution
    • Preindustrial societies :
    • hunting-gathering society
    • Horicultural society - plant seeds and crops, tools, objects
    • agrarian society - plow invented, cultivate fields generations
    • industrial society - nonanimal sources of power to labor tasks
    • Postindustrial - economic system engaged in processing/control of information, output of services
    • Postmodern - technologically sophisticated society that is preoccupied with consumer goods and media images
  66. Lenski's definition of technology
    information about how to use the material resources of hte environment to satisfy human needs and desires
  67. labor unions
    consist of organized workers who sahare either the same skill or the same employer
  68. Reasons for union membership decline
    • 1) Changes in the type of industry
    • 2) Growth in part time jobs
    • 3) The legal system
    • 4) Globalization
    • 5) Employer Offensives
    • 6) Union rigidity and bureaucratization
  69. mass media
    the print and electronic means of communication that carry messages to widespread audiences

    ex: radio, television, movies, internet
  70. cultural convergence
    the flow of content across mulitple media, and the accompanying migration of media audiences

    not initiated by the media, people initiate it
  71. narcotizing dysfunction
    the phenomenon in which the media provide such massive amounts of coverage that the audience becomes numb and fails to act on the information, regardless how compelling the issue.

    created by Paul Lazarsfeld and Robert Merton
  72. Functionalist perspective on mass media
    media entertain, socialize, enforce social norms, confer status and promote consumption. They can be dysfunctional to the point that they desensitize us to serious events and issues
  73. Conflict theorists view of mass media
    the media reflect and even deepen the divisions in society through gatekeeping, or control over which material reaches the public; media monitoring, the covert observation of people's media usage and choices; and support of the dominant ideology, which defines reality, overwhelming local cultures
  74. gatekeeping
    how material must travel through a series of gates (or checkpoints) before reaching the public
  75. media monitoring
    used most often to refer to interest groups' monitoring of media content

    can also be applied to government monitoring of individuals' phone calls without their knowledge
  76. digital divide
    gap in access of latest technologies to low-income groups, racial and ethnic minorities, rural residents, and citizens of develping contries
  77. dominant ideology
    a set of cultural beliefs and practices that helps to maintain power social, economic, and political interests
  78. stereotypes
    unreliable generalizations about all members of a group that do not recognize individual differences within the group
  79. Feminist view on mass media
    media imiages of the sexes communicate unrealistic, stereotypical, limiting, and sometimes violent perceptions of women
  80. 3 problems feminists believe arise from media coverage
    • 1) Women are underrepresented, which suggests that men are the cultural standard and women are insignificant.
    • 2) Men and women portrayed in ways that reflect and perpetuate stereotypical views of gender. Women often shown in peril, rescued by men
    • 3) Depictions of male-female realationships emphasize traditional sex roles and normalize violence against women
  81. Interactionist view on mass media
    examine the media on the micro level to see how they shape day to day social behavior. They have studied shared TV viewing and staged public appearances intended to convey very self-serving definitions of reality.
  82. opinion leader
    someone who influences the opinions and decisions of others through day to day personal contact and communication