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What aspect of the stifle is most commonly effected by osteochondrosis?
lateral trochlear ridge of distal femur
What is foal particularly susceptible to in the stifle joint?
hematogenous septic arthritis
What are some difficulties associated with taking rads of pelvis? So now what is an easier way to evaulate this region?
- high output machine needed
- general anesthesia usually required
- -rectal ultrasound
For head films, the horse is usually in which position?
standing (often with sedation)
With the exception of ___ view, exposure requirements are not that high for the head.
Is a cassette required for films of the head?
In young horses, the ___ partly obscure the sinus cavities.
long reserve crowns of the cheek teeth
Which projections are used to demonstrate the rostral maxilla and mandible and incisor/canines?
intra-oral projections (sedation for standing or GA)
Which area of the head is most susceptible to fractures from trauma? How is this area projected?
- dorsal facial area
- "customized projections" to place damaged area in "skyline"
Penetrating fractures of the ___ and ___ may lead to accumulation of blood in paranasal sinuses.
nasal bones and maxilla
What is suture periostitis?
damaged fronto-nasal suture --> periosteal proliferation and soft tissue swelling in dorsal facial area/midline
Fractures of ___ may be associated with hemorrhage into guttural pouch.
Chip fractures of the ____ and fractures involving ___ may become infected and form discharging tracts w/sequestra.
What is likely associated with sinus disease and is destruction of nasal conchae? Best seen on which view?
- rhinitis (may be accompanied by dystrophic mineralization)
- VD views
What is either primary or secondary to dental disease?
Inflammatory changes in mucosa due to sinusitis can lead to a build up in what? How is it seen on rads?
granulation tissue causing diffuse, patchy increase in opacity of air spaces/maxillary sinus; fluid levels and occasionally mineralization seen
How do sinus cysts appear radiographically?
- fill sinus cavities -- homogenous opacification
- sometimes mineralization
How are ethmoid masses seen on rads?
well defined masses; sometimes multiple, adjacent to ethmoturbinate or caudal max. sinus; may bleed into sinus and prod. fluid levels
T or F: Neoplasia in sinuses are rare and cause varying degrees of opacification and bone destruction.
which views are best for cheek teeth?
- oblique projections
- 30 degree oblique for root
- 45 degree oblique for reserve
Infection in roots of which teeth produce facial swelling and discharge tracts?
roots of maxillary cheek teeth rostral to max. sinus (PM2, 3,4)
Infections in which teeth lead to sinusitis and nasal discharge?
caudal PM4 and M1-3
Do hi or lo frequencies have better penetration with ultrasound?
Do hi or lo frequencies have better resolution w/ultrasound?
What types of tissues are echoic/hyperechoic?
- bone surfaces
- fibrous tissue
- +/- fat
What is anechoic/echolucent?
What are 4 things US can demonstrate when evaluating tendons?
- fiber pattern
There are major limitations w/US of thorax but what is it helpful in detecting?
- quantifying fluid in pleural space
- differentiating fluid from consolidated lung w/pleuropneumonia
- sometimes see masses/abscesses if in contact w/chest wall
In nuclear medicine, ionizing radiation is used but attached to organic molecules safely tolerated by body tissues. What is this compound called?
What is the only feasible view for pharynx/larynx? does rostral or caudal part require higher exposures?
- lateral (VD in recumbent young foal)
- rostral bc between mandible
What view is feasible for thorax?
- lateral (right and left to get full detail and 4 fields for adult)
- incr. FFD of atleast 2m is used + air gap b/w pt and film
Thoracic films are relatively reliable for showing what?
- moderate/large amt of free pleural fluid and air
- -hemorrhage, severe infiltrates, localized lesions detected is not obscured by cardiac shadow/cran. abdomen
- (airway disease NOT reliably evaluated)
T or F: bacterial pneumonia and pulmonary congestion from congenital heart defect is demonstrated in rads of juveniles.
what radiographic technique is helpful in evaluating patients with "wobblers"?
where are spinous processes difficult to demonstrate w/rads due to lack of tissue contrast?
mid and caudal thoracic vertebrae
With MRI, which atom is used to produce the magnetic field?
T or F: Modifications of standard MRI now allow images to be taken in the standing horse.
Rads, CT or MRI: which has advantage in that it does not have harmful effects on living tissue?