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Are further diagnostic signs other than history and clinical signs usually needed to diagnose Canine Infectious tracheobronchitis?
No, usually self-limiting resolves within 7-14 days
In what animals is collapsing trachea most common?
Middle-aged small dogs
What type of treatment for collapsing trachea is adequate for most animals?
Medical therapy (weight loss, avoid collars, cough suppressants, corticosteroids...)
In feline bronchitis, if bronchi lumen decrease by 50% how much does air flow decrease?
What is the key feature of canine chronic bronchitis?
Chronic cough (months to years)
What physical conditions predispose animals to Canine Atopic dermatitis?
- Impaired skin barrier function
- Th1/Th2 imbalance that favors development of IgE
What is the age of onset of canine atopic dermatitis?
B/t one and two years of age
Where does canine atopic dermatitis typically manifest on the dog? 3
How can you demonstrate allergen-specific IgE (only supports diagnosis) in canine atopic dermatitis? 2
- Intradermal skin test
- Serological test (ELISA)
If hyposensitization works in canine atopic dermatitis, what is expected to happen?
gradual improvement over the first 9 months
What medical therapy can be used against the inflammation response in canine atopic dermatitis? 7
- Essential fatty acids
- Janus kinase inhibitor
What are the most important essential fatty acids for the skin? 4
- Linoleic acid
- Linolenic acid
- Gamma-linolenic acid
- Eicosapenanoic acid
How long must you continue essential fatty acid therapy to accurately assess the response?
What is the cornerstone of therapy for canine atopic dermatitis?
What immunological processes are relevant with canine food allergy?
- Cell-mediated hypersensitivity
What breeds of dogs are predisposed to canine food allergy? 3
- German shepherds
- Rhodesian ridgebacks
What is usually seen alongside canine food allergy? 4
- Secondary generalized staphylococcal infection
- Recurrent otitis externa (80% of cases)
What is the only way to confirm the diagnosis of an adverse food reaction?
Hypoallergenic diet trial followed by provocation
What test has a negative predictive value of >99% in canine food allergy?
What type of immunological response is involved in canine contact dermatitis?
Cell-mediated (Type 4) hypersensitivity
What part of the body is affected by allergic contact dermatitis (dogs, sometimes horses)?
Restricted to hairless parts of the body
What is the recommended therapy for allergic contact dermatitis? 2
- Remove allergen from environment
- Remove animal from environment
What is the primary lesion in feline miliary dermatitis?
Erythematous papule that readily becomes encrusted
If a feline has head and neck pruritus, what is the most likely etiology?
What is suspected is you see well-demarcated, raised, oozing and ulcerated plaques on the abdomen and medial thighs of a feline?
Eosinophilic granuloma complex (eosinophilic plaque)
What are the three forms of linear granulomas seen in cats?
- Linear lesions (posterior aspect of one or both limbs)
- Nodular lesions (mouth)
- Swelling of the chin
What ulcerated lesion of the upper lip in cats is associated with allergy?
Eosinophilic ulcer (rodent ulcer)
What type of hair loss in the cat is usually symmetrical involving the flank and ventrum, with "shorn-off" hairshaft tips?
Self induced hair loss (Barbed alopecia)
What is the most effective antihistamine for cats?
What type of allergy is almost never seen in the cat?
What virus is the cause of inflamed plaques in the vicinity of the nares that may ulcerate in cats?
What virus causes "paw and mouth disease" with oral lesions accompanied by ulcerated lesions of the carpal region in cats?
Feline calicivirus infection
What is the major pathogen in canine staphylococcal pyoderma?
Staph pseudintermedius (not a true inhabitant of normal skin)
What is the most useful classification of pyodermas?
Depth within the skin
What are the three main types of surface pyodermas?
- Bacterial overgrowth (BOG)
- Pyotraumatic dermatitis (itch and scratch cycle)
- Fold pyodermas
What are the two main predisposing factors to pyotraumatic dermatitis (surface pyoderma)?
- Itch-scratch-itch cycle
- Underlying perforating folliculitis
Where is the infection in impetigo (superficial pyoderma)?
just under the stratum corneum
Where is impetigo (superficial pyoderma) most common?
Commonest in hairless areas (young puppies)
In what breed of dog is mucocutaneous pyoderma (superficial pyoderma) most common?
What type of superficial pyoderma originates in the hair follicle, producing papules?
Folliculitis (favors trunk and ventral abdomen)
What is the most common form of bacterial skin infection?
Folliculitis (superficial pyoderma)