Evidence Midterm '12

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Anonymous
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175779
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Evidence Midterm '12
Updated:
2012-10-06 10:12:59
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evidence
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Midterm Fall 2012
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  1. Define Activity Limitations
    difficulties an individual may have in executing activities
  2. Define Biologic Plausibility
    The reasonable expectiation that the human body could behave in the manner predicted
  3. Define clinical expertise
    Proficiency of clinical skills and abilities, informed by continually expanding knowledge, that individual clinicians develop through experience, learning, and relection about their practice
  4. Define Diagnosis
    a process that integrates and evaluates data obtained during a patient's exam, often resulting in classification that guides prognosis, the POC, and subsequent interventions
  5. Define Disability (Nagi Model)
    the inability or restricted ability toi perform actions, tasks and activities related to required self-care, home management, work, community and leisure roles in the individual's socioculture context and physical environment.
  6. Define Evaluation
    a dynamic process in which the physical thearpist makes clinical judgments based on data gathered during the examination
  7. Define Functional Limitations (Nagi Model)
    Occur when impairments result in a restriction of the ability to perform a physical action, task or activity in an efficient, typically expected, or competent manner
  8. Define Impairment (ICF Model)
    problems in body functions or structure such as a significant deviation of loss
  9. Define Impairment (Nagi Model)
    Alterations in the anatomical, physiological or physchological structures or functions that both 1. result from underlying changes in the normal state and 2. contribute to illness.
  10. Define Intervention
    the purposeful use of various physical thearpy procedures and techniques, in collaboration with the patient and, when appropriate, other care providers, in order to effect a change in the patient's condition
  11. Define Outcome
    the end result of patient's management, which include the impact of physical thearpy interventions, may be measured by the PT or determine by self-report from the patient
  12. Define Pathology (Nagi Model)
    a disease, disorder, or condition that is primarily identified at the cellular level and is 1. characterized by a paraticular cluster of signs and symptoms and 2. recognized by either the patient or the practicioner as 'abnormal'
  13. Define Participation Restrictions (ICF Model)
    problems an individual may experience in involvement in life situations
  14. Define Patient-centered Care
    health care that customizes treatment recommendations and decision making in response to the patients' preferences and beliefs... this partnership also is characterized by informed, shared decision making ,development or patient knowledge, skills needed for self-managemnet of illness, and preventitve behaviors
  15. Define Prevention
    • activities that attempt to:
    • 1. prevent a target condition in susceptible or potentially susceptible populations;
    • 2. decrease the duration of illness, severity of disease and sequelae through elarly diagnosis and intervention
    • 3. limit the degree of disability and promote rehab and restoration of function in patients with chronic and irreversible dieseases
  16. Define Prognosis
    • prediction of the natureal course of a condition or its development based on previously identified risk factors
    • the predicted optimal level of improvement through intervention and the amount of time required to achieve that level
  17. Define Bias
    results or inferences that systematically deviate from the truth or the processes leading to such deviation
  18. Define Biologic Plausibility
    the reasonable expectation that the human body could behave in the manner predicted
  19. Define Case Report
    a detailed description of the management of a patient that may serve as a basis for future research
  20. Define Clinical Practice Guideline
    systematically developed statements to assist practictioner and patient decisions about appropriate health care for specific circumstances
  21. Define Cross-sectional Study
    a study that collects data about a phenomenon during a single point in time or once within a defined time interval
  22. Define Effectiveness
    the extent to which an intervention or service produces a desired outcome under usual clinical conditions
  23. Define Efficacy
    the extent to which an intervention or service produces a desired outcome under ideal conditions
  24. Define Evidence
    any empirical observation about the apparent relation between events constitutes potential evidence
  25. Define Experimental Design
    • a research design in which the behavior of randomly assigned groups of subjects is measured following the purposful manipulation of independent variable(s) in at least one of the groups
    • used to examine cause-and-effect relationships between an independent variable and an outcome
  26. Define Longitudinal Study
    a study that looks a a phenomenon occurring over time
  27. Define Narrative Review
    description of prior research without a systematic search and selection strategy or critical appraisal of the study's merits
  28. Define Nonexperiemental desgin
    • a study in which controlled manipulation of the subjects is lacking
    • if groups are present, assignement is predetermined based on naturally occurring subject characteristics or activities
  29. Define Peer Review
    • a process by which research is appraised by one or more content experts
    • commonly utilized when articles are submitted to journals for publication and when grant proposals are submitted for funding
  30. Define Physiologic Study
    • a study that focuses on the cellular or physiologic systems levels of the subjects
    • often performed in a laboratory
  31. Define Prospective Design
    a research design that follows subjects forward over a specified period of time
  32. Define Quasi-experimental design
    • a research design in which there is only one subject goup or in which randomization to more than one subject group is lacking
    • controlled manipulation of the subjects is preserved
  33. Define Randomized clinical trial
    • a clinical study that uses a randomization process to assign subjects to either an experiental group or a control group.
    • subjects in the experiemental group receive the intervention or preventive measure of interest and then are compared to the subjects in the control group who did not receive the experiemental manipulation
  34. Define Retrospective Design
    research design that uses historical data from sources such as medical records, insurance claims, or outcomes databases.
  35. Define Single-System Design
    a quasi-experiemental research design in which one subject reveices in an alternating fashion both the experiemntal and control condtion
  36. Define Systematic Review
    a method by which a collection of research is gathered and critcally appraised in an effort to reach an unbiased conclusion about the cumulative weight of the evidence on a particular topic
  37. Define Boolean
    • the words AND, OR, NOT, and NEAR
    • used to combine search terms in electronic evidence databases and other search engines
  38. Define Keyword(s)
    the word or terms that is entered into an electronic database search function to locate evidence pertaining to a clinical question
  39. Define Measurement Reliability
    • the extent to which repeated measurements agree with one another.
    • also referred to as "stability", "consistancy", and "reproductibility"
  40. Define Measurment Validity
    the degree to which a measure captures what is intended to measure
  41. Define MeSH
    • Medical subject heading
    • term used to describe approved search vocabulary in the US National Library of Medicain electronic database
    • the MeSH vacab may also be used by other elctronic evidence databases
  42. Define Primary Source
    original research reports such as articles in peer-reviewed journals or on web-sites, theses and dissertations, and proceedings from professional meetings
  43. Define Responsiveness
    the ability of a measure to detect change in the phenomenon of interest
  44. Define Search String
    a combo of keywords, phrases, names, or other informations that is entered into an electronic database search function to locate evidence pertaining to a clinical question
  45. Define Secondary Sources
    textbooks, summaries on Web sites, and review papers that contain info based on primary sources of info
  46. Define Biological Plausibility
    the reasonable expectation that the human body could behave in the manner predicted
  47. Define Concept
    a mental image of an observable phenomenon that is expressed in words
  48. Define Conceptual Framework
    • a collection of interrelated concepts or constructs that reflect a common theme
    • may be the basis of a more formal theory
    • usually depicted in schematic form
  49. Define Construct
    • a nonobservable abstraction created for a specific research purpose
    • defined by observable measures such as events or behaviors
  50. Define Null Hypothesis
    • also referred to as the "statistical hypothesis"
    • a prediction that the outcome of an investigation will demonstrate no difference or no relationship between groups in the study other than what chance alone might create
  51. Define Research Hypothesis
    • also referred to as the alternative hypothesis
    • a prediction that the outcome of an investigation will demonstrate a difference or relationship between groups in the study that is the result of more than chance alone
    • may be written uing directional language such as more than, less than, positive, or negative
  52. Define Theory
    • an organized set of relationships among concepts or constructs
    • proposed to describe and explain systematically a phenomenon of interest as well as to predict future behaviors or outcomes
  53. Define Bias
    results or inferences that systematically deviate from the truth or the processes leading to such deviation

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