A&PCH4

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Kcasabar
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175787
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A&PCH4
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2012-10-08 16:36:56
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PCH4
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A&PCH4
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  1. Name the 4 basic tissues and their role
    • Epithelial (covering)
    • Connective (protection)
    • Nervous (control)
    • Muscle (movement)
  2. 2 areas the epithelial tissue occur
    • 1. covering and lining epithelium
    • 2. glandular epithelium
  3. What do epithelial tissues form?
    They form boundaries between different environments and nearly all substances revieved or given off by the body must pass through an epithelium
  4. Name the 6 roles of an epithelium tissue
    • 1. Protection
    • 2. Absorption
    • 3. Filtration
    • 4. Excretion
    • 5. Secretion
    • 6. Sensory Reception
  5. Name the 5 special charaterstics of epithelium tissue
    • 1. Polarity
    • 2. Specialized contacts
    • 3. supported by CT
    • 4. Avascular but innervated
    • 5. Regeneration
  6. Apical surfaces have what that increase the surface area?
    Microvilli
  7. Lateral cell junctions include what
    • Desmosomes (anchoring junctions that link proteins(
    • Tight junctions (leak proof sheets; seals extracellular space)
    • Gap junctions (allow substances to leak between cells)
  8. Tiny hairlike projections that propel substances alon their free surface
    Cilia
  9. What is a basal lamina?
    • noncellular adhesive sheet consisting of glcoproteins.
    • acts as a selective filter that determines which molecules are allowed to enter
  10. Epithelial cells are bound together by
    • Tight junctions
    • Desmosomes
  11. How are epithelial cells nourished?
    by diffusion of substacnes from blood vessels in underlying CT
  12. Simple epithelium are most concerned with what?
    • Absorption
    • Secretion
    • Filtration
  13. Where is simple squamous epithelium found?
    • Kidney glomeruli
    • air sacs of lungs
    • lining of heart, blood ceseels, and lymphatic vessels
  14. Fucntion of simple squamous epithelium
    • Allows passage of materials my diffusion and filtration where protection is NOT important
    • secretes lubricating substances in serosae
  15. Simple cuboidal epithelium is found where?
    • Kidney tubules
    • ducts and secretory portions of small glands
    • ovary surface
  16. Simple columnar epithelium is found where?
    • Nonciliated - lines difestict tract, gallbladder, excretory ducts of some glands
    • ciliated - lines small brnochi, uterine tubes, some regoins of uterus
  17. Fuction of simple columnar epithelium
    • absorption,¬†secretion of mucus, enzyms
    • ciliated type propels mucus
  18. What type of epithelium tissue have nuclei that lie at different levels above the basement membrane
    Pseudstratified
  19. Function of pseudostratified columnar epithelium
    • secretion of mucus
    • propulsion of mucus by ciliary action
  20. Location of pseudostratified columnar epithelium
    • noniliated - mals sperm-carrying ducts and ducts of large glands
    • ciliated variety lines trachea and URT
  21. The outer layer (epidermis) of stratified squamous epithelium is what?
    Keratinized
  22. Stratified squamous epithelium location
    • nonkeratinized - moist linings of esophagus, mouth, and vagina
    • keratinized - epidermis of skin
  23. transitional epitheliums function
    stretches and permis distension of urinary organ by contained urine
  24. location of transitional epithelium
    lines uereters, urinary bladder, part of the urethra
  25. Endocrine does what?
    Produce hormones and secrete by exocytosis into the extracellular space
  26. The secretory pathway of glandular epithelium
    RER -> GOLGI -> VESICLES -> EXOCYTOSIS
  27. Exocrine glands are unicellular and multicellular
  28. Example of exocrine secretions
    • muscous
    • sweat
    • oil
    • salivary glands
    • liver
    • pancreas
  29. What are the 2 cells in unicellular exocrine glands?
    • goblet cells
    • mucous cells
  30. unicellular exocrine glands secrete mucin (glycoprotein) that dissolves in water = mucus that protects and lubricates surfaces
  31. the 2 basic parts of multicellular exocrine glands
    • secretory unit
    • duct
  32. Nervous tissue does what and is found where?
    internal communication

    brain, spinal cord, nerves
  33. muscle tissue does what and is found where
    contracts to cause movement

    • muscles attaced to bones (skeletal)
    • muscles of heart (cardiac)
    • muscles of walls of hallow organs (smooth)
  34. epithelial tissues does what and is found where?
    fors boundaries between different environments, protects, secretes, absors, filters

    • lining of GI tract organs and other hollow organs
    • skin suface (epidermis)
  35. Connective tissue does what and is found where?
    supports, protects, binds other tissues together

    bones, tendons, fat and other soft padding tissue
  36. the 4 main classes of CT
    • CT proper
    • cartilage
    • bone
    • blood
  37. functions of CT
    • binding and support
    • protection
    • insulation
    • transportation of substances within the body
  38. characteristics of CT
    • Common origin
    • degrees of vascularity
    • extracellular matrix
  39. which of the 4 types of CT is avascular
    • cartilage
    • dense CT
  40. 3 main elements of CT
    • ground substance
    • fibers
    • cells
  41. This hold large amounts of fluid and functions a medium where nutrients and other dissolved substances can diffuse between the blood capillaries and the cells
  42. 3 types of fibers
    collagen, elastic, reticular fibers
  43. Reticular fibers are found where
    • small blood vessels
    • soft tissue of organs
  44. Elastic fibers are found where
    • skin
    • lungs
    • blood vessel walls
  45. 3 types of blast cell types
    • fibroblast - CT proper
    • chondroblast - cartilage
    • osteoblast - bone
  46. defensive WBC
    • neutrophils
    • eosinophils
    • lymphocytes
  47. cells concnerned with tissue response to injury
    • mast cells
    • macrophages
  48. MATURE CT comes from
    mesenchyme (embryonic tissue)
  49. types of loose connective tissues
    • areolar
    • adipose
    • reticular
  50. types of dense CT
    • dense regular
    • dense irregular
    • elastic
  51. function of  areolar CT
    • supporting and binding
    • holding body fluids
    • defending against infection
    • storing nutrients as fat
  52. function of adipose tissue
    similar to areolar but more nutrient-storing
  53. where does adipose tissue accumulate
    SQ acts as shock absorber, insulation, energy storage, prevent heat loss
  54. location of adipose tissue
    • under skin of hypodermis
    • around kidneys and eyeballs
    • within abdomen
    • in breasts
  55. function of reticular CT
    forms a soft internal skeleton (stroma) that supports other cell types including WBC, mast cells, macrophages
  56. location of reticular tissue
    lymphoid organs
  57. location of dense regular
    tendons, ligaments, aponeuroses
  58. this tissue runs in the same direction parallel to the direction of pull
    dense regular ct
  59. function of dense irregular
    • tension in many directions
    • structural strength
  60. location of dense irregular
    • firbous capsuls of organs of joints
    • dermis of skin
  61. location of elastic ct
    • walls of large arteries
    • within certain ligaments of vertebral column
    • within wall of bronchial tubes
  62. function of hyaline cartilage
    • supports and reinforces
    • resilient cushioning proterties
    • resists compressive stress
  63. location of hyaline cartilage
    • embryonic skeleton
    • covers ends of long bones in joint cavities
    • forms costal cartilages of ribs
    • cartilages of nose, trachea, larynx
  64. function of elastic cartilage
    maintins shape of a structure while allowing great felixbility
  65. location of elastic cartilage
    supports external ear, epiglottis
  66. location of fibrocartilage
    intravertebral disc
  67. fucntion of fibrocartilage
    tensile strength with ability to absorb compressive shock
  68. Function of blood
    transport for cardiovascular system carrying nutrients, wastes, resporatory gases
  69. function and location of skeletal muscles
    • attached to bones or skin
    • voluntary movement, locomotion, factial expression, voluntary control
  70. which 2 types of muscle is involuntary
    cardiac and smooth
  71. muscle tissues possess what?
    • myofilaments
    • highly cellular, well-vascularized
  72. covers the body surface
    cutaneous membrane
  73. line body vavities open to the exterior
    mucous membranes
  74. line body cavities closed to the exterior
    serous membranes 
  75. type or reaction of inflammatory response
    nonspecific & develops quickly
  76. type of reaction of immune respone
    specific and takes longer
  77. 2 major ways of repair
    • regeneration
    • fibrosis
  78. steps of tissue repair
    • inflammation sets the stage
    • organization restores blood supply
    • regeneration and fibrosis effect permanent repair
  79. tissues of moderate capacity for regeneration
    • smooth muscle
    • dense regular CT
  80. tissues with weak regenerative capacity
    • skeletal muscle
    • cartilage
  81. tissues with no functional regenerative capacity
    • cardiac muscle
    • nervous tissue
  82. secretions are chemical messenger molecules called
    hormones
  83. What 2 cells are found inside the lacunae
    • chondrocyte
    • osteocyte
  84. What are the 2 types of nervous tissue
    • neuralgia (nerve support cells)
    • neurons (nerve cells)
  85. What are the 2 functions of neurons
    • Irritability
    • conductivity (sends impulses to other areas of the body)
  86. What are the common structural components of neurons
    • cell body
    • dendrites (recieves signal)
    • axon (sends message)
    • axonal terminals (end point)

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