Psychopharmachology Terms

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Psychopharmachology Terms
2012-10-06 00:12:47
biopsychology chemical messengers neurotransmitters monoamines drugs psychopharmachology

Quiz 1: Biopsychology
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  1. Neuromodulator
    A chemical messenger that communicates with target cells more distant than the synapse by diffusing away form the point of release
  2. Neurohormone
    A chemical messenger that communicates with target cells at great distance, often by traveling through the circulation
  3. Neurotransmitter
    A chemical messenger that communicates across a synapse
  4. Muscarinic receptor
    A postsynaptic receptor that responds to both ACh and muscarine
  5. Nicotine receptor
    A postsynaptic receptor that responds to nicotine and ACh
  6. (AChE) acetylcholinesterase
    An enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine
  7. (ACh) acetylcholine 
    A major small-molecule neurotransmitter used at the neuromusclar junction, in the autonomic nervous system, and in the central nervous system
  8. Indolamine
    One of a subgroup of monoamines, including serotonin and melatonin
  9. Monoamine
    One of a major group of biogenic amine neurotransmitters, including dopamine, morepinephrine, epinephrine, and serotonin
  10. Catecholamine
    A member of a group related biogenic amines that includes dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine
  11. Epinephrine
    One of the monoamine/ catecholamine neurotransmitters; also known as adrenaline
  12. (MAO) Monoamine oxidase
    An enzyme that breaks down monoamines
  13. Norepinephrine
    A major monoamine and catecholamine neurotransmitter
  14. Dopamine
    A major monoamine and catecholamine neurotransmitter implicated in motor control, reward, and psychosis
  15. (NO) Nitric oxide
    A gas that performs a type of signaling between neurons
  16. Serotonin
    A major monoamine and indolamine neurotransmitter believed to participate in the regulation of mood, sleep, and appetite
  17. (GABA) gamma-aminobutyric acid
    A major inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitter
  18. Adenosine
    A byproduct of adensoine triphosphate (ATP) that functions as a neurotransmitter
  19. Glutamate
    A major excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter
  20. Placebo Effect
    Perceived benefit from inactive substances or procedures
  21. Area Postrema
    A brainstem area, in which the blood-brain barrier is more permeable, that triggers vomiting and response to the detection of circlating toxins
  22. Nucleus Accumbens
    A dopaminergic structure believed to participate in reward and addiction
  23. Addiction
    A compulsive craving for drug effects or other experiences
  24. Withdrawl
    The symptoms that occur when certain addictive drugs are no longer administered or are administered in smaller quanities 
  25. Tolerance
    The process in which more of a drug is needed to produce the same effect
  26. Agonist
    Substance that promotes the activity of a neurotransmitter
  27. Antagonist
    Substance that reduces the action of a neurotransmitter
  28. Nicotine
    A stimulant drug that is the major active component in tabacco
  29. (GHB) gamma hydroxybutyrate
    An illegal liquid sedative that appears to affect the thresholds of respones for a number of neurotransmitters
  30. (THC) tetrahydrocannabinol
    The major ingredient of cannabis
  31. (LSD) lysergic acid diethylaminde
    A hallucinogenic drug that resembles serotonin
  32. St. John's Wort
    An herb that is frequently used to selftreat mild depression
  33. (PCP) phencyclidine
    A hallucinogen that acts as an antagonist at the NMDA glutamate receptor
  34. Mescaline
    The active hallucinogenic ingredient found in the peyote cactus
  35. Caffeine
    A stimulant drug found in coffee, tea, cola, and chocolate that acts as an antagonist to adenosine
  36. Psychoactive drug
    A drug that produces changes in mental processes
  37. (MDMA) Ecstasy 
    A close relative of amphetamine that produces it behavioral effects by stimulating the release of serotonin
  38. Endorphin
    A naturally occuring neuropeptide that is very closely related ot opioids
  39. Amphetamine
    A highly addictive drug that acts as a potent dopamine agonist
  40. Opiate
    An active substance derived from the opium poppy
  41. Methamphetamine
    A variation of amphetamine that is cheaply produced and widely abused in the United States
  42. Cocaine
    A powerful, addictive dopamine agonist derived from the leaves of the coca plant of South America