Bmsc200 Biology Foundations

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Scottygo
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175829
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Bmsc200 Biology Foundations
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2012-10-19 20:18:52
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Bmsc200 midterm1 pre biomolecules
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biomelecules bio foundations
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  1. What limits the max and min size of a cell?
    • -The lower limit is set by the minimum amount/size of biomolecules required by the cell
    • -The upper limit of cell size is set by the rate of diffusion of solute molecules in aqueous systems. Every part of the cell needs access to solute diffusing into the cell
  2. Convert cell radius (r) to surface area and volume.
    • Surface area = 
    • Volume =  
  3. What are the 3 distinct domains of life?
    • -Bacteria
    • -Archaea
    • -Eukarya
  4. 2 Major Differences Between Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes
    • -Eukaryotes have a Membrane bound Nucleus and organelles
    • -Eukaryotes are multicellular
  5. What are the Classifications of Organisms According to How They Obtain Energy and Carbon? Give examples
    • Phototrophs (energy from light)
    •      -Autotrophs (carbon from  )
    •      ex:Cyanobacteria; Vascular Plants
    •      -Heterotrophs (carbon from organic compounds)
    •      ex: Purple Bacteria; Green Bacteria
    • Chemotrophs (energy/carbon from oxidation of chemical fuels)
    •      -Lithotrophs (inorganic fuels)
    •      ex: Sulfur Bacteria; Hydrogen Bacteria
    •      -Organotrophs(organic fuels) 
    •      ex: Most Bacteria; Nonphototrophic Eukaryotes
  6. Convert digested calories to pounds of ATP
    • •Metabolic Efficiency is ~ 50% so
    • digested calories =( ) calories of ATP
    • -1 ATP calorie = 10 g of atp so 

    = grams ATP
  7. What is a Peptidoglycan layer?
    it serves a structural role in the bacterial cell wall, giving great structural strength
  8. What are the characteristics of Gram-negative bacteria?
    • -outer membrane which blocks gram
    • -thin peptidoglycan layer underneath
    • -inner membrane beneath that
  9. What are the characteristics of Gram-positive bacteria?
    • -no outer membrane
    • -thicker peptidoglycan layer which absorbs gram
  10. What are the characteristics of Cyanobacteria?
    • -Gram negative
    • -tougher peptidoglycan layer
    • -extensive inner membrane system with photosynthetic pigments
  11. What are the characteristics of Archaea?
    • -no outer membrane
    • -pseudopeptidoglycan layer outside plasma membrane
  12. What are Ribosomes?
    Protein synthesizing machines
  13. What are peroxizomes?
    They oxidize fatty acids
  14. What is the Cytoskeleton?
    It supports the cell and aids in movement of organelles
  15. What is a Lysosome?
    It degrades unwanted intracellular debri in animal cells using enzymes
  16. What is a Transport vesicle?
    It shuttles lipids and proteins between ER, Golgi and Plasma membrane
  17. What is a Golgi Complex?
    it processes, packages and targets proteins to other organelles or for export
  18. What is the Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum?
    It is the site of lipid synthesis and drug metabolism
  19. What is the nucleus?
    It contains the genes(chromatin)
  20. What is the nucleolus?
    a cellular structure found within the nucleus where ribosmal RNA synthesis takes place
  21. What is the Rough Endoplasmic reticulum?
    it is involved in the synthesis of proteins(covered in ribosomes) and is also a membrane factory for the cell
  22. What is the Mitochondrion?
    It oxidizes fuels to produce ATP
  23. What is the Plasma Membrane?
    It seperates cells from the environment, and regulates the movement of materials into and out of cell
  24. What is the Nuclear Envelope?
    it segregates the chromatin(DNA + protein) from cytoplasm
  25. What is a cell wall?
    It provides shape and rigidity to plant cells and protects against osmotic swelling
  26. What is a Glyoxysome?
    It contains enzymes of the Glyoxylate cycle in plant cells
  27. What is a plasmodesma?
    It provides a path between two plant cells
  28. What is a vacoule?
    it degrades and recycles macromolecules and store metabolites. Found in plant cells only
  29. What is a starch granule?
    It temporarily stores carbohydrate products of photosynthesis in chloroplast.
  30. What is a thylakoid?
    the site of light driven ATP synthesis inside Chloroplast
  31. What is a Chloroplast?
    it is a plant cell organelle that harvests sunlight to produce ATP and Carbohydrates
  32. What is a Nucleoid?
    a single long circular DNA molecule found in prokaryotes
  33. What are Pili?
     hair like appendages found on the surface of many bacteria cells used for movement and to adhere to other cells
  34. What is a Flagella?
    a long tail used to propel single celled organisms
  35. What is a cell envelope?
    the outer structure of single celled organisms
  36. What are the three types of cytoplasmic filaments?
    • actin filaments-small
    • intermidiate filiments-medium
    • microtubules-large
  37. What are the four non-covalent bonds used by macromolecules to interact with themselves and others?
    • electrostatic
    • hydrophobic
    • hydrogen bonding 
    • van der Waals
  38. What are the Two methods of seperating organelles from Cytosol?
    • -Differential Centrifugation
    • -Isopycnic (sucrose density) Centrifugation
  39. What is Differential Subterfugation?
    a procedure used to separate certain organelles from whole cells for further analysis of specific parts of cells. is first homogenised to break the cell membranes and mix up the cell contents. The homogenate is then subjected to repeated centrifugations, each time removing the pellet and increasing the centrifugal force resulting in smaller and smaller structures 
  40. What is Isopycnic (sucrose density) Centrifugation?
    a sucrose density gradient is created by gently overlaying lower concentrations of sucrose on higher concentrations in a centrifuge tube. The sample containing organelles of different bouyant densities (lipid and protein content) is placed on top of the gradient and centrifuged at forces in excess of 150,000 x g. The particles travel through the gradient until they reach the point in the gradient at which their density matches that of the surrounding sucrose. This fraction can then be removed and subjected to further analysis. After it becomes known between which two layers the required fraction finally settles, a simplified setup with just these two layers may be used.

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