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2012-10-07 11:01:44
Science Holt Technology Introduction Matter Chapter Elements Compounds Mixtures

Holt Science and Technology Introduction to Matter Chapter 3 Elements Compounds and Mixtures
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  1. The 3 topics covered in Chapter 3 are
    Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
  2. The 3 major categories of elements by properties
    Metals, non-metals and metalloids.
  3. Element
    A pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by physical or chemical means
  4. Pure Substance
    A substance in which there is only one type of particle.
  5. Metal
    An element that is shiny and that conducts heat and electric current well. (They are malleable and ductile).
  6. Nonmetal
    An element that is dull and conducts heat and electric current poorly. (They are brittle and unmalleable).
  7. Metalloid
    An element that has properties of both metals and nonmetals.
  8. Give examples of Metals
    Cobalt, iron, nickle, copper, lead and tin
  9. Give examples of nonmetals
    Iodine, sulfur and neon
  10. Give examples of metalloids
    Silicon, boron, antimony
  11. Elements have characteristic properties that help identify the element. Give examples of characteristic properties
    Physical properties: (boiling point, melting point, density)Chemical properties: (reactivity, flammability)
  12. Can elements share characteristic properties; do they also have their own?
    Yes, elements may share similar properties, but have other properties that will identify the substance.
  13. Compound
    Pure substance that is composed of two or moreelements that are chemically combined.
  14. How do compounds combine?
    The elements combine into a compound by reacting.
  15. Compounds can be identified by?
    • Physical properties (melting point, density, color)
    • Chemical properties (react to acid, react when in light) 
  16. Examples of common compounds
    table salt, water, vinegar, carbon dioxide and baking soda
  17. What makes up compounds?
    Compounds are made up of molecules.
  18. How do molecules form?
    Molecules form when 2 or more elements join
  19. In a compound, elements join in a _____ ______ according to their _____ to form a compound. The _____ of a certain compound is always the _____. 
    specific ratio, masses. ratio, same. 
  20. Compounds have properties that are ____________  those of the elements that form it.
    different from
  21. Give an example of different properties between a compound and its elements.
    • Sodium Chloride compound (Table Salt): no reaction to air, dissolves in water.
    • Sodium element reacts violently with water
    • Chlorine element is a poisonous gas
  22. Can you break a compound apart?
    Yes, some compounds may be broken down
  23. Compounds can be broken down into what two types of substances?
    simpler compounds or their elements
  24. The only way to break down a compound is through a ________  change.
    The only way to break down a compound is through a chemical change.
  25. Name 2 ways to add energy to break down a compound.
    Apply heat, or apply an electric current
  26. Define electrolysis
    The process of using electric current to break down compounds
  27. T or F: The compounds found in nature are usually the raw materials needed by industry.
    False. Often, the compounds found in nature must be broken down to provide the raw materials needed by industry.
  28. Name some compounds in the industry
    • Aluminum: produced by breaking down aluminum oxide
    • Ammonia: produced by combining nitrogen and hydrogen
  29. Name some compounds in nature.
    • Proteins – compounds found in living things
    • Carbon Dioxide – needed by plants to produce carbohydrates for energy
  30. Plants break down the compound carbon dioxide using a process known as ____________
  31. What is a Mixture
    Combination of 2 or more substances that are not chemically combined. Each substance in a mixture has the same chemical makeup it had before the mixture.
  32. What are the 3 types of mixtures?
    Solution, suspension and colloid.
  33. How can you separate a mixture?
    By physical change (not chemical change) like Distillation or Centrifuge.
  34. The components of a mixture do not need to be mixed in a ______  _______.
     definite ratio
  35. What is a Solution
    A mixture that appears to be a single substance but is not. It may be a solid, liquid or gas. The particles separate and spread evenly throughout the mixture.
  36. Explain in detail what particles in solution do.
    The solute dissolves in the solvent. The particles separate and spread evenly throughout the mixture.
  37. What is dissolving?
    Process in which particles separate and spreadout evenly through a mixture.
  38. Solute
    The substance that is dissolved
  39. Solvent
    The substance in which the solute dissolves.
  40. Give an example a Solvent and a Solute
    • Solvent: water;
    • Solute: salt
  41. What does soluble mean?
    able to dissolve
  42. What does insoluble mean?
    unable to dissolve
  43. What is Concentration and what are the units?
    The measure of the amount of solute dissolved in a solvent.

    Expressed in g/mL
  44. Solubility
    The ability of one the solute to dissolve in the solvent at a given temperature and pressure.
  45. What is dilute?
    contains smaller amounts of solute
  46. What is concentrated?
    contains larger amounts of solute
  47. What is a Suspension
    • Mixture in which particles of material are dispersed throughout a liquid or gas but are large enough that they settle out.
    • They scatter light and can be separated by filtering.
  48. What is a Colloid
    • Mixture in which the particles are dispersed throughout but are not heavy enough to settle out. Particles are small and well mixed.
    • They scatter light but cannot be separated by filtering.
  49. Give an example of a suspension and a colloid
    Suspension: paint, salad dressing, snow globe.

    Colloid: gelatin, whipped cream
  50. A solution that contains a large amount of solute is said to be ____________  whereas if it contains a small amount of solute it is said to be __________.
    concentrated, dilute (weak)
  51. Malleable
    can pound into a sheet
  52. Ductile
    Easily drawn into thin wires
  53. Name the 3 types of mixtures
    Solution, suspension and colloid.
  54. Distillation
    A process that separates a mixture based on the boiling points of the components.
  55. Centrifuge
    A process that separates a mixture based on density.
  56. How does the solubility of gases change with temperature?
    Gases become less soluble in liquids as the temperature increases.
  57. How does the solubility of solids change with temperature?
    Most solids become more soluble in liquids as the temperature increases.
  58. 3 ways to dissolve a solid faster in a liquid ?
    Stir/shake, heat, crush (the solute).