BIOCHEM 200

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Author:
mct
ID:
175907
Filename:
BIOCHEM 200
Updated:
2012-10-06 20:06:54
Tags:
Amino Acids
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Description:
Part 2, Amino acids structures
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  1.          COO-
             l
    H3N - C - H
             l
             CH3
    • Alanine (Ala)
    • Apliphatic R group
    • Hydrophobic R group
    • Participates in hydrophobic interactions
  2.         COO-
             l
    H3N - C - H
             l
             CH
            /  \  
       H3C    CH3
    • Valine (Val)
    • Aliphatic R group
    • Highly hydrophic R group
    • Participates in hydrophobic interactions
  3.          COO-
             l
    H3N - C - H
             l
    H3C - C - H
             l
            CH2
             l
            CH3
    • Isoleucine (Ile)
    • Aliphatic R group
    • Highly hydrophobic R group
    • Participates in hydrophobic interactions
  4.         COO-
             l
    H3N - C - H
             l
            CH2
             l
            CH
           /  \
      H3C    CH3
    • Leucine (Leu)
    • Aliphatic R group
    • Highly hydrophobic R group
    • Participates in hydrophobic interactions
  5.         COO-
             l
    H3C - C - H
             l
            CH2
             l
          //  \
         l     ll
          \\  /
    • Phenylalanine (Phe)
    • Aromatic R group
    • Highly Hyrdophobic R group
    • Participates in hydrophobic interactions
  6.          COO-
             l
    H3N - C - H
             l
            CH2
             
    l
      // \ / \\
      l    ll   l
      \\ /  --NH
    • Tryptophan (Trp)
    • Aromatic R group - heterocyclic
    • Hydrophobic, bulky
    • Participates in hydrophobic interactions
    • Forms hydrogen bonds
    •     - H-donor
  7.         COO-
             l
    H3N - C - H
             l
             CH2
              l 
            CH2
             l
            S
             l
            CH3
    • Methionine (Met)
    • Aliphatic R group
    • Hydrophobic
    • Participates in hydrophobic interactions
    • Sulfur containing side group (thioether)
  8.             COO-
                l
       H3N - C - H
          /     \
    H2C        CH2
         
      \     /
            CH2
    • Proline (pro)
    • Aliphatic side chain with distinctive cyclic structure
    • Secondary amine group
    • Imino acid (not actually)
    • Hydrophobic
  9.         COO-
             l
    H3N - C - H
             l
            H
    • Glycine (Gly)
    • Achiral
    • Weakly Polar
    • Very small -> flexible
  10.         COO-
             l
    H3N - C - H
             l
             CH2
             l
             OH
    • Serine (Ser)
    • Polar, uncharged
    • Contains hydroxyl group
    • Forms hydrogen bonds
    • Typically a H-donor
    • Can be modified? (due to oxygen)
  11.         COO-
             l
    H3C - C - H
             l
       H - C - OH
             l
             CH3
    • Threonine (Thr)
    • Polar, uncharged
    • Contains hydroxyl group
    • Forms hydrogen bonds
    • Typically a H-donor
    • Can be phosphorylated
  12.         COO-
             l
    H3N - C - H
             l
            CH2
             l
           // \
          l    ll
           \\ /
             l
            OH
    • Tyrosine (Tyr)
    • Weakly polar, uncharged
    • Aromatic R group
    • Phenol
    • Can participate in hydrophobic interactions
    • Contains hydroxyl group
    • Froms hyrdogen bonds
    • Typically a H-donor
    • Can be phosphorylated
  13.          COO-
             l
    H3N - C - H
             l
             CH2
              
    l
             SH
    • Cysteine (Cys)
    • Polar, uncharged
    • Sulfur containing side group (thiol group - SH)
    • Can form hyrdogen bonds
    • Can form a thiolate anion (S-)
    • Forms disuplide bonds with another Cys
  14.         COO-
             l
    H3N - C - H
             l
             CH2
             l
             C
            /  \\
        H2N   O
    • Asparagine (Asn)
    • Amide containing side chain
    • Carboxamide functional group
    • Polar,noncharged
    • Forms hydrogen bonds
    • H-bond donor and acceptor
  15.          COO-
             l
    H3N - C - H
             l
            CH2
             l
            CH2
             l
            C
           / \\
      H2N   O
    • Glutamine (Gln)
    • Amide containing side chain
    • Carboxamide functional group
    • Polar, noncharged
    • Forms hydrogen bonds
    • H-bond donor and acceptor
  16.          COO-
             l
    H3N - C - H
             l
             CH2
              
    l
           // \
          l    llN
         HN--
    • Histidine (His)
    • Side chain can be acidic or basic at neutral pH (imidazole ring)
    • Polar, charged/uncharged
    • His residues important in many enzyme catalyzed reactions
    • Proton donor (acid)/acceptor (base)
    • Hydrogen bonding capability - proton donor or acceptor
  17.         COO-
             l
    H3N - C - H
             l
             CH2
             l
             COO-
    • Aspartate (Asp)
    • Negatively charged R group at pH 7
    • second carboxyl group
    • acidic amino acid
    • Very polar
    • Forms hydrogen bonds
    • H-bond acceptor
    • At pH 1 called aspartic acid
  18.          COO-
             l
    H3N - C - H
             l
             CH2
             l
             CH2
              l
             COO-
    • Glutamate (Glu)
    • Negatively charged R group at pH 7
    • second carboxyl group
    • acidic amino acid
    • Very polar
    • Froms hyrdogen bonds
    • H-bond acceptor
    • At pH 1 called glutamic acid
  19.          COO-
             l
    H3N - C - H 
             l
             CH2
             l
             CH2
             l
             CH2
              
    l
             CH2
             l
             +NH3
    • Lysine (Lys)
    • Positively charged side group at pH 7
    • basic amino acid
    • Side group contains an amino group
    • contains 2 primary amino groups
    • Forms hydrogn bonds
    • H-bond donor
    • Very polar
  20.         COO-
             l
    H3N - C - H
             l
            CH2
             l
            CH2
             l
            CH2
              
    l
            NH
             l
            C
          /  \\+
     H2N     NH2
    • Arginine (Arg)
    • Positively charged side group at pH 7
    • guanido group
    • basic amino acid
    • never deprotonated under physiolocial conditions
    • Very polar
    • Forms hydrogen bonds
    • H-bond donor

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