pathophys II

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  1. systolic BP 10mm Hg less during inspiration due to impairment of LV filling
    pulsus paradoxus
  2. bronchospasms that persist despite usual treatments
    status asthmatics
  3. asthma onset of min.-hrs
  4. asthma onset of hrs - days
    slow onset acute
  5. late asthma response and causes
    • 4-12 hrs after attach
    • persistent eosinophil & lymphocyte activation
  6. S&S of asthma
    • dyspnea
    • sensation of chest constriction
    • inspiratory & expiratory wheezing
    • nonproductive cough
    • prolonged expiration
    • tachycardia
    • tachypnea
  7. atopic asthma
    • triggered by environmental allergens, family history
    • TH2 type cell overproduction with susequent immune responses dominated by IgE eosinophils
  8. non-atopic asthma
    • triggered by respiratory tract infections, chemical irritants, drugs
    • no family history
    • no IgE
  9. FRC
    functional reserve capacity - more air left
  10. TLC
    total lung capacity
  11. FVC
    forced vital capacity
  12. FEV
    forced expiratory volume
  13. asthma treatment
    • eliminate causative agent
    • reverse bronchospasm - inhaled bronco dilators
    • reduce airway inflammation - oral corticosteroids (early)
    • O2
    • antibiotics only if infection
  14. main goal of asthma treatment
    decrease inflammation
  15. main preventative measure of asthma
    avoid triggers
  16. two types of COPD
    • chronic bronchitis
    • emphysema
  17. 4th leading cause of death in the US
  18. 5 caused of COPD
    • smoking (20X)(active and passive)
    • occupational exposures
    • air pollution
    • history of severe childhood respiratory infections
    • genetics
  19. how do you distinguish a common cold from chronic bronchitis
    bronchitis - inhale OK, exhale disturbed
  20. COPD that involves more mucus and chronic productive cough
    chronic bronchitis
  21. 5 early S&S of chronic bronchitis
    • decrease exercise tolerance
    • wheezing
    • SOB
    • productive cough
    • decreae in FEV
  22. 5 late S&S of chronic bronchitis
    • copious amounts of sputum
    • frequent respiratory infections
    • air trapping
    • decrease alveolar ventilation and increase PCO2
    • marked hypoxemia
  23. abnormal, permanent enlargement of gas-exchange airways (acini)
    obstruction from changes in lung tissue
  24. secondary emphysema
    • inhaled toxins
    • pollution
    • smoke blockk enzyme inhibitors
  25. primary emphysema
    • missing proteolytic enzyme
    • autosomal recessive
    • component of alpha1 globulin (plasma protein)
  26. signified by barrel chest
  27. define chronic bronchitis
    hypersecretion of mucus and chronic productive cough that continues for at least 3 months of the year for 2 consecutive years
Card Set:
pathophys II

asthma, COPD, TB
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