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What is unique about water? Name 5 out of 9.
- 1. One of few substances existing as s,l,g at earth's normal T
- 2. High BP 3. High MP
- 4/5 Latent heat of fusion/vaporization
- 6. Very good solvent
- 7. Density of solid < Density of liquid
- 8. High specific heat
- 9. Neutral pH
What unique properties of water are bc of H bonds? (4)
structure of water, high MP, BP, heat capacity.
What are some examples of things that H-bonds important for? (4)
DNA, protein sructure, contribute to high surface tension of water & explains why fish don't freeze during winter.
What takes more energy: liquid --> gas or solid --> liquid?
Liquid --> gas
Where is the hottest place on Earth? Ocean? Temperature of each?
Earth: Death Valley (120-130 degrees F)
Red Sea/Mediterranean (35-38 degrees C)
Coldest place on earth? ocean? temp of each?
Earth: Vostock station in Antarctica (-70 - +58 degrees C).
Ocean: Arctic Ocean (-2 degrees C)
3 reasons why we care about seawater density:
Affects currents, biological life, can absorb heat.
Necessary for life & circulation; at bottom allows availability for oxygen, CO2, etc.
Seawater can absorb slightly more heat than pure water.
How does water pressure affect ocean temperature?
Define potential T. What is potential T in relation to in-situ T?
Large pressure due to overlying seawater causes measured in-situ temp in ocean to increase
- Potential T: T after removing prsesure
- Potential T is ALWAYS less than in-situ T.
At what temperature is water densest?
4 degrees C - before it becomes a solid.
Which has a larger impact on density of water? Temp or salinity? Why?
When does seawater freeze: before or after temp of max density? Why? What is the product of sea ice formation?
Temperature, bc oceans in world have small range of salinity and large range of temperature, so temp = deciding factor.
Seawater freezes before temp of max density. Bc freezing point of soln is lower than pure soln. (colligative properteis)
Product of sea ice formation: salt exclusion: high salinity brines.
What is the pycnocline? Where is it in ocean in comparison to mixed surface layer and deep layer?
- Pycnocline - depth range in water column in
- which density changes rapidly in the vertical dimension
In between. It goes (1) Mixed surface layer (2) pycnocline layer (3) deep layer.
Where are the most productive seawaters due to light penetration?
Along coastal areas (photosynthesis).
What are the three modes of heat transfer?
- 1. Conduction (soup-pot)
- 2. Convection (radiators - movement of heat and matter)
- 3. Radiation: direct transmission - no medium required.
Energy transfer via radiation is mostly through what part of the spectrum?
The visible part.
Why doesn't solar heating result in continually rising temps on earth?
Bc Earth gives off a lot of heat at sea and reradiates it at longer (less energetic) wavelengths.
MOSTLY BC MOST RADIATION IS REFLECTED BACK INTO SPACE.
REflected by clouds, surface, scattered back to space, latent heat transferred to atm by evaporation,
What are the following terms referring to:
1. High latitude?
- 1. Polar
- 2. Equator
- 3. 23.5 degrees N/S
- 4. Pole-ward side of tropics.
How are winds named? What about currents?
Winds are named for the direction FROM which they came.
Currents are named for direction they're going.
What direction would wind (air mass) patterns go in on an ideal, nonrotating Earth w/ no continents or coriolis effect?
Where would convergence/divergence occur?
North and South only, with convergen e and divergence occurring at poles.
Describe how air mass would move on an ideal, nonrotating Earth. (7).
1. Equator oceans are warmer (higher solar heating), so heat transfers via evaporation is greater at equator. Atmosphere absorbs more heat from land/ocean than from sun; solar heating is greatest at equator, so at equator, ocean water is warmer, so heat of transfer of water by evaporation from ocean --> atmosphere is greater at equator than at higher latitudes.
2. Equatorial air mass rises through troposphere, creating low pressure zone & horizontal pressure gradient (atm, sea level).
3. Rising air is replaced by air flowing into region from higher latitudes.
4. When air mass rises to equilibrium density level, it spreads towards poles, progressively cooling & releasing water vapor as rain.
5. Air mass is cool/dense enough (via condensation) sink and create high pressure zone (atm, sea level).
6. Air moves "vertically" from pole --> equator along horizontal pressure gradient (high P to low P).
7. As air moves back to equator, it's warmed & gains water vapor from evaporation and cycle repeats.
Evaporation, rise (creating low P & horizontal PG), replaced, spreads/cools, sinks (creating high P zone), moves along HPG, warmed/gains water vapor.
Define coriolis effect
What causes Coriolis Effect? (2)
What direction does it cause things to move in? (N/S hemisphere).
Coriolis effect: apparent deflection of objects (that aren't frictionally coupled) moving over surface of earth.
Caused by Earth's rotation and lack of frictional coupling between Earth's surface and freely moving objects.
Cum Sole: towards the sun. In N hemisphere, moves right. In S hemisphere, moves left.
Where is Coriolis Effect strongest? Weakest? Why?
Essentially, what affects force of Coriolis effect?
Strongest at poles, weakest at equator.
Based on equation:
= Earth's rotation rate
, phi = latitude and u = speed of object. Main effects: latitude & speed of object.
At phi = 0, sin(0) = 0, so at equator its weakest and strongest at poles.
What is the Coriolis Force equation? Name components as well.
Based on equation:
Omega = 2(pi)/86400 Hz, phi = latitude, u = speed of object.
What direction do winds on rotating Earth move? Why?
- Cum Sole: In N hemisphere, deflects right. In S hemisphere deflects left.
Describe atmospheric pressure & climate of:
1. Polar cell
2. Polar front
4. Horse latitudes
Where does air upwell and downwell?
- 1. Polar cell: High atm P, dry climate.
- 2. Polar front: Low atm P, wet climate.
- 3. Low atm P, wet climate (rain forests)
- 4. Horse latitudes: High atm P, dry climate (deserts)
Air rises in low atm pressure/wet places and falls in high atm pressure/dry places.
In what areas does air rise and fall? 2 each.
Air rises at polar fronts and equator (doldrums/ICTZ).
Air sinks at poles and horse latitudes.
Rises at wet climates, low atm pressure. Sinks at dry climates, high atm pressure.
Is angular velocity faster at equator or at poles?
Where is the Ferrel cell located? What "type" of cell is it? Name of winds? What direction do winds come from? Where do they go and why?
Ferrel cell is located 30 degrees N/S to 60 degrees N/S (polar front). It's a temperate cell.
Persistent surface winds from SW in N hemisphere and from NW in S hemisphere called WESTERLIES. They go east bc they're moving AWAY from equator.
Where is the Hadley cell located? What "type" of cell is it? Name of winds? What direction do winds come from (N & S hemisphere? Where do they go and why?
From equator to 30 degrees N/S.
Trade winds (SE in S hemisphere & NE in N hemisphere) They go west because they're moving towards equator.
Where are the polar cells located? What "type" of cell is it? Name of winds?* (2) What direction do they blow?
From 60 degrees to poles.
Not really a type - polar?
Winds are jet streams, but they're actually located at polar fronts between Ferrel and Polar cells. Jet streams blow from west to east but highly variable.
OR POLAR EASTERLIES (east to west).
What is useful about jet streams?
Jet stream in N hemisphere is indicator of storm movement, so used in weather forecasts.
What is another name for the equatorial line? (2)
Doldrums/ITCZ intertropical convergence zone
How does atmospheric pressure change from January to July? Specifically what does January look like in Southern hemisphere? (2)
Jan: Northern hemisphere has a lot more high pressure zones and Southern hemisphere has more low pressure zones (on continents), but seas between continents are high pressure zones.
July: Things flip: Southern hemisphere has more high pressure zones, whereas Northern hemisphere has more low perssure zones.
How does ITCZ zone change from winter to summer?
In winter, it goes through middle of South America, dips along Africa and goes through Australia.
- In summer, it rises and goes through northern tip of S America, through N Africa and China.
Why do we have lower salinity at equator than N/S of it? (2)
Bc of high precipitation:evaporation ratio at equator due to cloud cover and less winds
Even though evaporation generally increases from pole to equator, it is lower in equatorial latitudes vs subequatorial latitudes bc of (1) persistent cloud cover (2) equatorial region is persistently calm, whereas trade winds have higher winds and greater evaporation (increased air flow/increased SA of water created by waves).
Why does Atlantic have higher salinity than Pacific?
Bc in westerly wind zones, moist air masses from Pacific moving towards American continents lose moisture as rain falls on western coastal mountain ranges (Andes, Rock Mtns, etc. Consequently, precipitation runs off into Pacific.
How does difference in evaporation and precipitation relate to sea surface salinity?
What kind of processes are temp and salinity% considered? Def of process
Conservative processes - altered only by processes happening at ocean boundaries. Within the ocean interior, see changes ONLY as a result of mixing of water masses.
Is the salinity of marginal seas high or low? examples (2 each)
Depends, usually extremely high or extremely low when they have limited water exchange with open oceans.
- High: Med/Red Sea
- Low: Baltic Sea, SE Asia marginal seas.