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How to carry an axe
carry the axe with the blade away from the body and the pick head covered or in its scabbard. Never over your shoulder.
- usually found in commercial occupancies
- three types of operating latches
- Key turns a cam which moves the latching device and opens the lock.
How to break tempered glass
FF should strike the glass with a sharp blow with a pointed tool like the pike of a halligan in a lower corner
- used to perform thru the lock forcible entry
- pulls lock cylinder out to expose lock mechanism
- back K part slides over lock and front has a loop for adz of a halligan
halligan and it's three parts
- designed by hugh halligan of FDNY
- most important single tool for forcible entry
- 30 inch forged steel
- adz, pike, fork
- married with flat head axe to form irons
What are abrasive discs made of?
- Carbide tipped- wood and roofing materials 12-24 teeth, light metals and plastic can be cut with these as well, maintain full rpms when cutting with this blade
- Aluminum oxide abrasive disc- cutting metals, locks, doors, roll down gates, other forcible entry ops.
- Silicon carbide or steel diamond matrix- masonry materials like concrete, brick, blocks and stone
Two types of glass doors
metal/tubular frame and tempered frameless glass door
Conventional Forcible Entry
- uses levaerage, force, and impact
- uses irons
- aka safety glass
- two or more sheets of glass with a plastic sheet between them to hold glass together if it is broken
- most common in automobile windows
Building construction related to breaching walls
- wood frame construction with lath and plaster or drywall are usually easy to breach
- concrete and brick buildings are more difficult and require more effort
Power saw and how they are used
- most common cutting tool for forcible entry
- two types: rotary with circular blade and chain saw
- powered by two cycle gasoline engine
- used for removing doors and gates
Two types of roll down doors
sectional rolling steel doors and continuos steel doors
- steel bar 28 inches long has a 3 in. large adz end and a forked end
- older tool replaced by the halligan
- pike pole, assorted lengths
- used to take out glass from a safe distance
- can extend FF reach to close a door
- used for prying and removing roof material
Signs of backdraft
- smoke stained windows
- puffing smoke at seams, cracks, and windows
- smoke pushing out under pressure
- no visible flame or dull red flame
- heavy black smoke
- large open area structure or large voids
- extreme heat
unburned products of smoke and gases accumulate and when O2 is introduced the gases rapidly ignite with explosive force
Obstacles that can impede ventilation
- security devices
- height of building
- lack of personnel
- confusing floor layout
highly toxic, used commercially as vermin fumigant
overstimulates breathing rate
during combustion process energy is released in...
an exothermic reaction as heat and light
Spray stream setting when venting a window
should be between 30-60 degree angle filling 90% of the window opening without touching it
naturally occuring event in which molecules travel from levels of high concentration to areas of low concentration
When ventilation may be performed?
- When buildings have protection system using chemicals like Halon
- venting lets halon out of fire room and could allow rekindle
- mechanical mode of venting
- water is employed to create air movement
- aka trench cut
- defensive tactic
- roof opening that ventilates attic or cockloft
- when performed, the building on fire side of strip is deemed unsavable
PPV and how it is created
- Positive Pressure Ventilation
- compartment is positively charged with air thru a PPV fan and the heat and smoke are dispacedthru chosen avenues to the exteriors
Types of fans for venting
ejector and PPV
Venting and tactical functions....
venting can better conditions for crews inside to work and/or search
It is logical to assume that a tool that is too cannot be moved fast enough to develop proper striking force.
Power hydraulic spreaders can be used for in certain circumstances
It is a good idea to all forcible entry operations with the fire attack and ventilation.
halligan is what type of tool
Which tool is used to cut metal bars, wires, and other hardware
One of the first operations conducted before anything else at building fires is ____.
conduct forcible entry
The best tool to use for positive pressure ventilation is a ____.
Trench ventilation is sometimes referred to as ____ventilation.
To be most effective, trench ventilation operations must be completed before ____
fire reaches the trench
After opening a roof, it is often necessary to ____.
open the roof underneath
When breaking a glass window with an ax, the firefighter should use the
flat part of the axe
A firefighter who is opening windows and doors in a structure to allow for smoke and heat to escape is performing ____ ventilation.