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2012-10-31 14:49:23
vet tech chemistry atoms elements set

vet tech chemistry atoms and elements set
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  1. Alkali Metals
    • elements of Group 1A (1), except hydrogen
    • these are soft, shiny metals with one outer shell electron
  2. Alkaline Earth Metals
    group 2A (2) elements, which have 2 electrons in their outer shell
  3. Atom
    the smallest particle of an element that retains the characteristics of the element
  4. Atomic mass
    • the weighted average mass of all the naturally occurring isotopes of an element
    • aka atomic weight
    • aka molar mass
    • average of all the naturally occurring isotopes according to their percentage abundance
  5. Atomic mass unit (amu)
    • a small mass unit used to describe the mass of very small particles such as atoms and subatomic particles
    • 1 amu = 1/12 the mass of a 12 6 C atom (carbon with mass number of 12 and atomic number of 6)
  6. Atomic number
    a number that is eqal to the number of protons in an atom
  7. Atomic symbol
    an abbreviation used to indicate the mass number and atomic number of an isotope
  8. Chemical symbol
    an abbreviation that represents the name of an element
  9. Electron
    • a negatively charged subatomic particle having a very small mass that is usually ignored in calculations
    • its symbol is e with - superscript
  10. Electron-dot symbol
    the representation of an atom that shows valence electrons as dots around the symbol of the element
  11. Energy level
    a group of electrons with similar energy
  12. Group
    a vertical column in the periodic table that contains elements having similar physical and chemical properties
  13. Group number
    • a number that appears at the top of each vertical column (group) in the periodic table
    • indicates the number of electrons in the outermost energy level
  14. Halogens
    group 7A (17) elements: fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine and astatine
  15. Ionization energy
    the energy needed to remove the least tightly bound electron from the outermost energy level of an atom
  16. Isotope
    • an atom that differs only in mass number from another atom of the same element
    • isotopes have the same atomic number (number of protons), but different number of neutrons
  17. Mass number
    the total number of neutrons and protons in the nucleus of an atom
  18. Metal
    • an element that is shiny, malleable, ductile, and a good conductor of heat and electricity
    • the metals are located to the left of the zigzag line in the periodic table
  19. Metallic character
    a measure of how easily an element loses a valence electron
  20. Metalloid
    • elements with properties of both metals and non-metals
    • located along the zigzag line in the periodic table
  21. Neutron
    • a neutral subatomic particle having a mass of about 1 amu
    • found in the nucleus of an atom
    • its symbol is n or n superscript 0
  22. Noble gas
    • an element in group 8A (18) of the periodic table
    • generally unreactive and seldom found in combinations with other elements
  23. Non-metal
    • an element with little or no luster tat is a poor conductor of heat and electricity
    • the non-metals are located to the right of the zigzag line in the periodic table
  24. Nucleus
    • the compact, very dense center of an atom
    • contains the protons and neutrons of the atom
  25. Period
    a horizontal row of elements in the periodic table
  26. Periodic table
    an arrangement of elements by increasing atomic number such that elements having similar chemical behavior are grouped in vertical columns
  27. Proton
    • a positively charged subatomic particle have a mass of about 1 amu
    • found in the nucleus of the atom
    • its symbol is p or p superscript +
  28. Representative elements
    elements found in group 1A (1) through 8A (18), excluding B groups (3-12) of the periodic table
  29. Transition elements
    elements located between groups 2A (2) and 3A (13) on the periodic table
  30. Valence electrons
    electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom
    Start here
  32. Elements
    pure substances that can no longer be broken down further
  33. Symbols
    a shorthand notation for elements where the 1st letter is always capitalized, and, if there is a 2nd letter, it is always lower case
  34. Physical properties
    • properties that can be measured without affecting the identification of the element:
    • - shape
    • - color
    • - odor
    • - taste
    • - density
    • - hardness
    • - melting point
    • - boiling point
    • - luster - shininess
    • - ductility - ability to be drawn into a wire
    • - malleable - bendable
    • - conductivity - electricity or heat
  35. Carbon allotropes
    • forms of carbon:
    • - graphite
    • - diamonds
    • - Buckminsterfullerene (Buckyballs)
    • - nanotubes
  36. Periodic table
    • metals:
    • - left of staircase, except H
    • - transition metals - in the "valley"
    • non-metals - right of staircase plus H
    • metalloids - around staircase:
    • - B - boron
    • - Si - silicon
    • - Ge - germanium
    • - As - arsenic
    • - Sb - antimony
    • - Te - tellurium
    • - Po - polonium
    • - At - astatine
  37. Groups
    • columns
    • group number is also # valence (outer shell) electrons
    • also called families
    • - IA - alkaline metals
    • - IIA - alkaline earth metals
    • - VIIA - halogens
    • - VIII - noble gases
  38. Periods
  39. Dalton's atomic theory
    • all matter is made of atoms
    • all atoms of the same element are identical - somewhat false - identical chemically, but some small differences
    • a compound is composed of 2 or more atoms, always in the same ratios
    • a chemical reaction is the rearrangement of atoms
    • atoms are never created or destroyd in a chemical reaction
  40. Cloud model
    • current theory
    • electrons in orbitals around the nucleus
    • electrons can seem to be particles (measurable) at some times & other times seem to be waves (like a wave in the ocean is not the ocean)
  41. Atomic number notes
    • determines ID of element
    • if the atom is electrically neutral, then the atomic number also = # electrons
    • if an atom has a charge to it, then its cause the # of electrons changed (never # protons)
    • positive charge = electron loss
    • negative charge = proton loss
    • in the universe, # of protons = # of electrons; ratio = 1:1
  42. Electron shells
    • electrons are arranged in energy levels (and sublevels) or shells around the nucleus
    • not static, zipping around
  43. Orbitals
    • geometric space where there is the highest probablity of finding the electron
    • orbitals are in sublevels (each sublevel has a letter affixed to it):
    • - S sublevel - spherical
    • - P sublevel - principle
    • - D sublevel - diffuse
    • - F sublevel - fundamental
    • Groups 1 & 2 are S orbitals being filled in
    • Groups 15-18 are P orbitals being filled in
    • Groups 3-12 are D orbitals being filled in
    • F orbitals are used in extra elements at bottom of table
    • orbitals are filled in as follows - 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, etc
  44. Quantized atom - "n" level rules
    • there are n sub shells
    • there are n-squared orbitals
    • there is a maximum of n squared * 2 electrons
    • sub shells are sub energy levels in a particular energy level