Psy 255- Chapter 3

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Nandeita.Naraine
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175964
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Psy 255- Chapter 3
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2012-10-11 23:20:14
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psychology consumer behavior
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Chapter 3
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  1. Mesha read a magazine article and found out that we are supposed to consume 25 grams a fiber a day and that fruits, vegetables, and whole grains are good sources of fiber.  The next time she went to the store, she purchased whole wheat bread and more fruits and vegetables than she would have if she hadn’t read that article.  This change in Mesha’s behavior is an example of _____.

    A.classical conditioning
    B.habituation
    C.cognitive dissonance
    D.perception
    E.learning
    E. learning
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Many store brand packages look similar to national name brand packages.  This is done with the hope that consumers’ awareness of and interpretation of the package design might lead them to think the less expensive store brand is just as good as the more expensive name brand.  This is an attempt to influence consumers’ _____. 

    A.exposure
    B.schemata
    C.affect
    D.explicit memory
    E.perception
    E. perception
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. The cost for a 30-second advertising slot on the Super Bowl was $3 million in 2011, and that’s on top of the costs to produce the commercial.  Advertisers are spending $3 million to activate which aspect of the consumer perception process? 

    A.attention
    B.exposure
    C.comprehension
    D.cognition
    E.affect
    B. exposure
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Which term describes a consumer’s immediate response after exposure to a stimulus?

    A.affect
    B.sensation
    C.perception
    D.attention
    E.cognition
    B. sensation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. Natalie walked by a bakery and her first response was a feeling of desire for something tasty because of the alluring aroma coming from the store.  This immediate response Natalie experienced is called _____.

    A.sensation
    B.perception
    C.exposition
    D.cognition
    E.affect
    A. sensation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. Henrik has set aside three hours where he will do nothing else but study for his upcoming marketing exam.  He turns off his television, phone, and computer because he knows he will not be able to focus on his textbook otherwise.  Which element of perception do these actions best represent?

    A.concentration
    B.comprehension
    C.attention
    D.categorization
    E.sensation
    C. attention
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. _____ is the attempt to derive meaning from information.

    A.Attention
    B.Exposure
    C.Sensation
    D.Comprehension
    E.Learning
    D. Comprehension
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. IKEA is a large home furnishings retailer that offers good furniture at very low prices with stores all over the world.  One way the company can offer such low prices is by having the customer assemble the furniture themselves.  Therefore, instruction booklets accompanying the products usually rely heavily on pictures to make it easier for customers to understand how to put the furniture together.  Even with pictures, though, it is often difficult to assemble the product.  Sometimes, consumers will study the directions closely and still not understand what they are supposed to do.  Which element of perception in not accomplished?

    A.exposure
    B.comprehension
    C.satisfaction
    D.attention
    E.value
    B. comprehension
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. _____ is the process by which the human brain assembles the sensory evidence into something recognizable.

    A.Contrast e.Reaction
    B.Cognitive organization
    C.Perception
    D.Sensory categorization
    B. cognitive organization
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Which of the following response occurs when a stimulus has characteristics such that individuals readily recognize it as an example of a specific category?

    A.selective distortion
    B.contrast
    C.sensation
    D.assimilation
    E.accommodation
    D. assimilation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. Most consumers easily recognize a round, bouncy toy as a ball.  What cognitive organization reaction has occurred?

    A.selection
    B.accommodation
    C.contrast
    D.assimilation
    E.internalization
    D. assimilation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. _____ occurs when a stimulus shares some, but not all, of the characteristics that would lead it to fit neatly in an existing category.

    A.Assimilation
    B.Sensation
    C.Contrast
    D.Accommodation
    E.Selective distortion
    D. accomodation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. Sheri was having a few friends over and she served endamame as a snack.  Bob thought she was serving peas because that’s the only thing he thought came in pods like that.  Sheri explained that endamame is soy beans.  For Bob to recognize endamame in the future, which cognitive organization reaction must occur?

    A.internalization
    B.assimilation
    C.sensation
    D.accommodation
    E.contrast
    D. accomodation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. Which of the following occurs when a stimulus does not share enough in common with existing categories to allow categorization?

    A.contrast
    B.selective perception
    C.sensation
    D.assimilation
    E.accommodation
    A. contrast
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. James is six years old and was looking at a game on television where players were tossing a small ball around using long sticks with a little net on the end with the objective to get it in the opponent’s goal.  He knew it wasn’t soccer or hockey, but he couldn’t figure out what it was.  Finally, he had to ask his mother, who told him the sport was called lacrosse.  Which cognitive organization reaction did James likely experience?

    A.assimilation
    B.combination
    C.distortion
    D.contrast
    E.internalization
    D. contrast
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Consumers are bombarded with hundreds of marketing messages each day but “see” only a small portion of them because they screen out most of them.  This is an example of _____.

    A.selective distortion
    B.selective exposure
    C.discrimination
    D.selective retention
    E.selective sensation
    B. selective exposure
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. When you went to school or work today, you passed by many billboards and there likely were many advertisements on the radio, but you only saw or heard a few of them.  In terms of selective perception, which of the following does this represent?

    A.selective exposure
    B.subliminal processing
    C.discriminant exposure
    D.assimilation
    E.selective reaction
    A. selective exposure
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. The number of post-season college football bowl games has increased over the years.  Even the most diehard football fan might not want to watch all of them.  Most people just watch the ones they are most interested in.  This is an example of _____.

    A.accommodation
    B.subliminal processing
    C.absolute attention
    D.selective exposure
    E.determinant processing
    D. selective exposure
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Paying attention to only certain stimuli is which element of selective perception?

    A.discriminant attention
    B.focused attention
    C.limited attention
    D.selective attention
    E.subliminal attention
    D. selective attention
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. The term marketers use to describe the idea that consumers are often bombarded with too much information in their daily lives is _____.

    A.assimilation
    B.noise
    C.distraction
    D.clutter
    E.sensation
    D. clutter
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. The Department of Human Health and Safety has advised Americans to cut down on salt intake because it can lead to health problems such as heart disease and stroke.  Bob doesn’t believe all that because his grandfather always puts a lot of salt on his food and he’s 90 years old.  Which element of Bob’s selective perception does this illustrate?

    A.selective attention
    B.selective distortion
    C.absolute distortion
    D.selective persuasion
    E.selective exposure
    B. selective distortion
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. Which of the following refers to the way in which the human brain senses low-strength stimuli, that is, stimuli that occur below the level of conscious awareness?

    A.subliminal processing
    B.just noticeable differentiation
    C.selective attention
    D.selective exposure
    E.threshold processing
    A. subliminal processing
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. Monique stopped smoking by listening to tapes of music that had “don’t smoke” embedded within.  The message was just loud enough for her brain to perceive it but it was not obvious when listening to the music.  This is an example of _____.

    A.selective distortion
    B.just noticeable differentiation
    C.primed persuasion
    D.subliminal persuasion
    E.just meaningful differentiation
    D. subliminal persuasion
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. Due to rising commodity costs, food companies like Kraft and McDonald’s are raising prices.  For some of the products, the price increases were big enough that some consumers balked at the price increase.  Apparently, these companies exceeded what point?

    A.perceptual difference
    B.absolute threshold
    C.Weber’s threshold
    D.absolute difference
    E.just noticeable difference
    E. just noticable difference
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. The law that states that as the intensity of the initial stimulus increases, a consumer’s ability to detect differences between two levels of the stimulus decreases is called _____.

    A.Pavlov’s Law
    B.Law of Diminishing Differences
    C.Law of Just Noticeable Differences
    D.Skinner’s Law
    E.Weber’s Law
    E. Weber's Law
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. Juan noticed that the price of his favorite brand of soft drink decreased so he purchased more than he usually would have purchased.  This is an example of which concept?

    A.Weber’s Law
    B.just meaningful difference (JMD)
    C.mere exposure effect
    D.subliminal effect
    E.selective distinction
    B. just meaningful difference (JMD)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. Memory for information one is exposed to, attends to, and applies effort to remember is called _____.

    A.primary memory
    B.conscious memory
    C.attentive memory
    D.explicit memory
    E.absolute memory
    D. explicit memory
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. Which of the following is memory for things that a person did not try to remember, as with things learned passively and unintentionally?

    A.implicit memory
    B.preattentive memory
    C.unintentional memory
    D.explicit memory
    E.intentional memory
    A. implicit memory
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. Which of the following refers to the finding that consumers will prefer an object to which they have been exposed compared to one to which they have not been exposed?

    A.subliminal effect
    B.Weber’s Law
    C.selective distinction
    D.mere exposure effect
    E.just meaningful difference (JMD)
    D. mere exposure effect
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding the mere exposure effect?

    A.The size of the effect (increased  liking) is as strong as an effect created by a strong cohesive argument.
    B.The mere exposure effect works best  when the consumer has lower involvement in processing the object.
    C.The mere exposure effect is created in   the absence of attention.
    D.The increased liking associated with   the mere exposure effect is easy to elicit.
    E.The mere exposure effect has the   greatest effect on novel objects.
    A. The size of the effect (increased  liking) is as strong as an effect created by a strong cohesive argument.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. One way marketers are dealing with the declining effectiveness of traditional advertising due to technology such as digital video recorders allowing viewers to zoom past commercials is to get their products integrated into television programs.  In some shows, actors are seen driving a Toyota Prius or drinking Pepsi.  This is an example of _____.

    A.subliminal advertising
    B.product creep
    C.product orientation
    D.product integration
    E.product placement
    E. product placement
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. Attention that is beyond the conscious control of the consumer and that occurs as the result of exposure to surprising or novel stimuli is known as _____.

    A.implicit attention
    B.unintentional attention
    C.involuntary attention
    D.explicit attention
    E.preattention
    C. involuntary attention
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. Most of us turn our heads toward an unexpected loud sound, such as a loud crack of thunder or a gun shot.  This startled response is the result of a(n) _____. 

    A.assimilation reflex
    B.primal reflex
    C.orientation reflex
    D.contrast reflex
    E.inherent reflex
    C. orientation reflex
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. Which of the following is a way to enhance consumers’ attention?

    A.surprising stimuli
    B.intense stimuli
    C.movement
    D.all of these choices
    E.contrast
    D. all of these choices
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. _____ refers to the personal relevance toward, or interest in, a particular product.

    A.Involvement
    B.Commitment
    C.Significance
    D.Attentiveness
    E.Contentment
    A. involvement
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. With which type of learning do consumers simply sense and react (or respond) to the environment?

    A.cognitive learning
    B.intentional learning
    C.unintentional learning
    D.subliminal learning
    E.preattentive learning
    C. unintentional learning
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. Which theory of learning focuses on changes in behavior that occur through responses to stimuli without concern for the cognitive mechanics of the process?

    A.Freudian approach
    B.minimalist approach
    C.preattentive approach
    D.behaviorism approach
    E.simplistic approach
    D. behaviorism approach
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. Which perspective focuses on the cognitive processes associated with comprehension that leads to consumer learning?

    A.conditioning approach
    B.operant learning perspective
    C.mindful learning perspective
    D.information processing perspective
    E.behaviorism approach
    D. information processing perspective
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. Two major approaches found in behavioral learning theory are _____.

    a.classical conditioning and   instrumental conditioning b.primary conditioning and secondary   conditioning c.conditioned learning and unconditioned   learning d.discriminative learning and   instrumental learning e.classical conditioning and   reinforcement conditioning
    e. classical conditioning and reinforcement conditioning
  40. _____ refers to a change in behavior that occurs simply through associating some stimulus with another stimulus that naturally causes a reaction.

    A.Shaping
    B.Discriminative conditioning
    C.Instrumental conditioning
    D.Classical conditioning
    E.Redundant conditioning
    D. classical conditioning
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. In classical conditioning, the stimulus with which a behavioral response is already associated is called the _____.

    A.operant stimulus
    B.instrumental stimulus
    C.primary stimulus
    D.unconditioned stimulus
    E.conditioned stimulus
    D. unconditioned stimulus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. In which type of unintentional learning is behavior conditioned through reinforcement?

    A.discriminative conditioning
    B.subliminal conditioning
    C.instrumental conditioning
    D.classical conditioning
    E.positive conditioning
    D. classical conditioning
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. Which of the following often take the form of some type of reward?

    A.nonpunishers
    B.conditioners
    C.discriminators
    D.shapers
    E.positive reinforcers
    E. positive reinforcers
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. Advertisements that feature special promotions, such as buy-one-get-one-free offers, represent marketing examples of _____ because they essentially signal that a type of reward will occur if a behavior is performed.

    A.shapers
    B.alternators
    C.conditioners
    D.discriminative stimuli
    E.differentiators
    D. discriminative stimuli
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. The process through which the desired behavior is altered over time, in small increments is called _____.

    A.shaping
    B.alternating
    C.discriminating
    D.classical conditioning
    E.reinforcing
    A. shaping
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. Which of the following represent stimuli that decrease the likelihood that a behavior will occur again?

    A.discriminators
    B.conditioners
    C.punishers
    D.shapers
    E.alternators
    C. punishers
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. Which of the following refers to the removal of bad stimuli as a way of encouraging behavior?

    A.extinguisher
    B.punisher
    C.nonconditioner
    D.positive reinforcement
    E.negative reinforcement
    E. negative reinforcement
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. Tanya only bought a certain brand of soft drink when she had a coupon for it.  Because she only purchased that brand when she was rewarded for doing so and ceased purchasing it when the reward was no longer present, this is an example of _____.

    A.shaping
    B.punishment
    C.desensitivity
    D.negative reinforcement
    E.extinction
    E. extinction
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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