chapter 30

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chapter 30
2012-10-07 01:00:28
chapter 30

chapter 30
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  1. amino acids
    organic compound used by the body to build and repair tissue
  2. cholesterol
    produced by the liver and found in animal fats produces fatty deposites in blood vessels
  3. deficiencies
    conditions that result with below normal intake of particular substance
  4. type 1 diabetes
    the pancreas no longer produce insulin
  5. type 2 diabetes
    body unable to use glucose for energy
  6. digestion
    converting food into chemical substances that can be used by the body
  7. diverticulosis
    pouchlike herniations through the musclular layer of the colon
  8. free radicals
    compounds with a least one upaired electron unstable and highly reactive leads to cancer , heart disease and other diseases
  9. hydrogenated
    combined with , treated with or exposed to hydrogen
  10. macular degeneration
    progressive deterioration of the macula of the eye that causes loss of central vision
  11. neural tube defects
    a group of congential anomalies involving the brain and spinal cord column
  12. obesity
    an excessive accumulation of body fat ( body mass index) greater than 30
  13. osteoporosis
    loss of bone density , lack of calcium
  14. psyllium
    a grain found in some cereal products in certain dietary supplements and in certain bulk fiber laxatives

    a water soluble fiber
  15. registered dietitian (RD)
    degree in food and nutrition who is concerned with the maintenance and promotion of health and the treatment of diseases through diet
  16. triglyceride
    a fatty acid and glycerol compound that combines with a protein molecule to form high-or low density lipoprotein
  17. turgor
    • normal skin tension
    • resistance of the skin to being grasped between the finger and released
  18. vertigo
    • dizziness 
    • a sensation of faintness
    • inability to maintain normal balance
  19. reasons for food choices
    • convenience
    • cost
    • emotional comfort
    • routine
    • positive experiences
    • ethnic or regional influences
    • health and weight
  20. nutrition
    all the processes involved in the intake and use of nutrients
  21. nutrients are
    the organic and inorganic chemicals in food that supply the energy and raw materials for cellular activities

    • carbohydrates
    • fats
    • proteins
    • vitamins
    • minerals
    • water
  22. dietetics
    is the practical application of nutritional science to individuals
  23. metabolism
    process in which nutrients are used at the cellular level a combination of two processes

    • anabolism
    • catabolism
  24. anaboilsm
    building of smaller molecules into larger compounds


    amino acids combine to form portein molecules
  25. catabolism
    breaking down of larger molecules
  26. essential nutrient
    cannot be manufactured by the body and therefore must be included in the diet
  27. nonessential nutrient
    can be created in the body
  28. BMR-basal metabolic rate
    the amount of energy used by a fasting resting individual to maintain vital functions

    determined by the amount of oxygen used
  29. calorie
    the rate by the amount of oxygen used and is defined in units of heat energy
  30. CHO- carbohydrates
    are chemical organic compounds composed of carbon , hydrogen , oxygen plant products

    • three groups
    • simple sugars
    • complex carbohydrates
    • dietary fiber
  31. dietary fiber
    • roughage-indigestible
    • maintains regularity
  32. water-soluble fiber
    • lowers blood cholesterol levels
    • oat bran , fruits , vegetables
  33. insoluble fiber
    helps prevent colon cancer and heart disease
  34. dietary fat
    • storage form of energy
    • gives food favor
    • concentrated form of fuel 9 kcal/g
  35. adipose tissue
    stored form of fat in the body

    any excess calories that are not burned for energy are converted into adipose tissue for energy storage

    supports and protects vital organs

    • protects nerves
    • relays nerve impulses
  36. saturated fats
    contain all the hydrogen possible and therefore are denser , heavier , solid at room temperature

    • eggs
    • lard
    • meat
    • margarine
    • dairy products
  37. unsaturated fats
    less heavy and less dense
  38. monounsaturated
    • fatty acids with one unfilled hydrogen bond
    • olives
    • peanuts
    • canola
    • peacans
    • avocados
  39. polyunsaturated fats
    have two or more unfilled hydrogen bonds are found in plants and are usually liquid at room temperature

    • safflower
    • corn
    • cottonseed
    • soy oils
  40. benefits of omega - 3 fatty acids
    • antinflammatory effects improve the immune response
    • protect blood vessels
    • inhibits formation of blood clots

    cold water fish , oils , walnuts , soybeans ,

    two servings daily