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What is the difference between fertility & fecundity? Provide defs for both.
Which is used to measure reproduction?
- Fecundity - biological ability to become pregnant.
- Fertility - actual reproductive rate of organism/population.
Fertility, bc it's easier to measure (birth certificates)
What role do estrogen & progesterone play during pregnancy? (3)
- 1. Maintain uterine lining
- 2. Inhibits lactation during pregnancy
- 3. Decreases maternal immune respones to baby.
What are 5 things a woman can do pre-conceptionally to improve chances of optimal birth outcome?
- 1. Start exercising
- 2. Take folate
- 3. Avoid smoking/alcohol
- 4. Manage diabetes
- 5. Take prenatal vitamins
Name 5 factors affecting male/female fertility?
Obesity, underweight, extreme exercise, STIs, smoking/alcohol
What are 5 things you'd want to know about a reproductive-aged woman at a routine gyn exam?
- 1. Smoking status
- 2. Safe sex
- 3. Abnormal pap smear
- 4. Last period
- 5. Gets enough iron/calcium
What advice would you give to a non-preg woman with a Hb <10 g/dl?
Since she is anemic, would prescribe small amounts of iron pills first! Then maintain iron status by eating iron-fortified foods, taking B12, C, etc.
What is the EDC? How is it determined? How long is it usually? (2)
EDC = Estimated date of confinement aka delivery date.
Determined by LMP (last menstrual period) or ultrasound.
Usually 280 days/ 9 months.
When do most critical periods take place? What are critical periods characterized by? (2) What is dangerous about this?
- 1. Before 8 weeks
- 2. Characterized by morphogenesis and hyperplasia (increase in cell number). Hypertrophy - # of cell size.
- 3. Fetus is most susceptible to environmental factors/nutr deficiencies, but at this point, some women may not realize they're pregnant.
Why is the fetus a parasite?
IT'S NOT. It is not a perfect parasite bc if times of nutritional deprivation, mother's needs come first and fetus's health is expended first.
What is the function of the placenta? 7 (specific examples for 2 of them) What's one thing it doesn't take care of?
- 1. Endocrine (produces hormones, esp estrogen and progesterone).
- 2. Immunity (transport of antibodies)
- 3. Toxin barrier
- 4. Gas exchange, waste removal, nutrient transport.
Does not take care of neurological functions!
What is the best placenta size? Are they larger for boys?
500 g. Yes.
What are some body changes? 7
- 1. Edema
- 2. Anemia
- 3. Increased CV activity
- 4. Endocrine (increased estrogen, progesterone, stress hormones, prolactin).
- 5. Metabolic: diabetogenic effects: basal metabolism increases, fasting glucose decreases, postprandial glucose increases).
- 6. Musculoskeletal - uterus size/weight increase, changed center of gravity, larger breasts, more flexibility (estrogen/relaxin)
- 7. Thermoregulatory
What are some hormone changes in body during pregnancy? (5)
Increased estrogen, progesterone, stress hormones, prolactin
Insulin responses more exaggerated.
What are metabolic effects of pregnancy? Musculoskeletal? 4 each.
Metabolic: diabetogenic, basal met increases, fasting gluc decreases, postprandial glucose increases
Musculoskeletal: increased size/weight of uterus, changed center of gravity, larger breasts, more flexible.
What are unfavorable metabolic changes initiated by excess fat due to pregnancy? 8
hyperglycemia, high C-reactive protein levels (indicator of inflammation), hyperinsulinemia, hypertension (pre-eclampsia), high blood levels of cholesterol, LDL-chol, and TAGs, low HDL levels.
What would you want to know if screening for diabetes? (5)
- 1. Markedly obese
- 2. Diabetes in immediate family member
- 3. History of glucose intolerance
- 4. Previous macrosomic infant (fat baby)
- 5. Current glucosuria.
Should all women get a glucose screen?
Not if they're under 25, no diabetes in first degree relatives, etc.
How can someone prevent gestational diabetes? (3)
By reducing overweight and obesity, increasing physical activity, and decreasing insulin resistance prior to pregnancy.
What are the products of conception? (3)
Fetus, amniotic fluid, placenta
What is preferred fuel for fetus?
3 question that are generally asked of infant's nutrition
- 1. How is baby growing?
- 2. Is diet providing all required nutrients?
- 3. How is the infant being fed?
An infant born before what week is considered preterm?
At what week is infant considered extremely in trouble?
Before 37 weeks = preterm
Before 34 weeks is considered at risk for nutritional risks
What are 2 major factors for the high rate of infant mortality in US? (US is 28th, which is redonk for developed countries)
Prevalence of low birth weight (8.3% in 2006).
What are some physical characteristics that are measured to determine newborn health status?
- 1. Birth weight
- 2. Length
- 3. Head circumference
for gestational age
What macronutrient is absolutely necessary for infant's growth? Why?
Carbs. Without carbs, baby will have to use protein/fat for energy, so will not have building blocks for growth.
What is the first food generally recommended for babies?
baby cereal (rice cereal).
Next, vegetables, followed by fruits,
Should watch out for foods that can choke baby (grapes, peanuts, hot dog pieces, etc).
What should you look out for if a woman becomes anemic during pregnancy?
To make sure baby gets additional iron supplements.
What is the normal amount of stools for an infant?
2-6 months depending on maturation of infant
How long should one breastfeed their kid for?
For however long, but at least 12 months.
Does maternal dietary restriction during pregnancy prevent atopic disease (allergies) in infants?