OB Chapter 6

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xijunzhu
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175970
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OB Chapter 6
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2012-10-07 01:29:29
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OB
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  1. what are the meaning of financial rewards?
    • symbol of success
    • reinforcer and motivator
    • reflection of performance
    • can reduce anxiety
    • culture values influence the meaning and value of money
  2. types of rewards in the workplace
    • membership and seniority
    • job status 
    • competencies 
    • performance based
    • chart 6.1
  3. what is membership/seniority based rewards? what are its advantages and disadvantages?
    • fixed wages, seniority increases
    • most common type of rewards used 
    • advantages: guaranteed wages may attract applicants, reduce turnover
    • disadvantages: doesn't motivate job performance, discourage poor performers from seeking work better suited to their abilities; may act as golden handcuffs
  4. job status based rewards
    • includes job evaluation and status perks
    • advt: job evaluation tries to maintain pay equity (higher payment for higher office), motivates competition for promotions
    • disadvt: employees exaggerate duties, hoard resources, reinforces status, hierarchy, inconsistent with workplace flexibility
  5. competency based rewards
    • pay increase with competency acquired and demonstrated
    • skilled based pay
    • advt: more flexible work force (multiskilled workforce), better quality, consistent with employability
    • disadv: potentially subjective, higher training costs
  6. performance based rewards
    • profit sharing: (ind)portion of profits (vested tool)
    • shared ownership: (indiv) receive shares of company by buying shares at a lower cost (vested
    • stock options: (indiv) sell market value, keep gain (vested)
    • gain sharing: (team) bonus paid to team based on cost saving  methods of practice
    • balanced scorecard: (team and indiv) rewards for improved results
    • awards/bonuses: indiv and team
    • commissions: (indiv) based on volume
    • piece rate: (indiv) pay for number of units produced. Higher pay more prodced
    • 401Ks: retirement plan you invest in
  7. evaluation of organizational rewards
    • positive effects:
    • creates "ownership culture" (employees feel aligned with organization's success
    • adjusts pay with firm's prosperity
    • scorecards align rewards with several specific organizational outcomes
    • concerns with performance pay:
    • weak connection between individual effort and rewards
    • rewards amounts affected by external forces
  8. how to improve reward effectivness
    • link rewards to performance
    • ensure rewards are relevant
    • team rewards for interdependent jobs
    • ensure rewards are valued
    • watch out for unintended consequences
  9. job design
    • assigning tasks to a job, including the interdependency of those tasks with other jobs
    • organization's goal: to create jobs that can be performed efficiently yet employees are motivated and engaged
  10. job specialization
    • dividing work into separate jobs that include a subset of the tasks required to complete the product or service
    • advt: less time changing activities, lower training costs, job mastered quickly, better person matching
    • disadvt: job boredom, discontentment pay, higher costs, lower quality, lower motivation
  11. describe the job characteristics model
    • core job characteristics leads to critical psychological states
    • skill variety, task identity and task significance leads to meaningfulness 
    • autonomy leads to responsibility
    • feedback from job leads to knowledge of results
    • all lead to work motivation, growth satisfaction, general satisfaction, work effectiveness
  12. what are the advantages of job rotation?
    • minimize repetitive strain injury
    • multiskills the workforce
    • potentiallly reduce job boredom
  13. what are the job practices that motivate?
    • job rotation
    • job enlargement
    • job enrichment
  14. job enrichment
    • given more responsibility for scheduliing, coordinating, and planning one's own work
    • -clustered tasks into natural groups (stitching interdependent tasks into one job)
    • -est. client relationships (directly responsible for specific clients, communicate directly with those clients)
  15. what are the dimensions of empowerment
    • self determination: employees feel they have freedom and discretion
    • meaning: employees believe their work is important
    • competence: employees have feelings of self-efficacy (beliefs that they can successfully complete a task)
    • impact: employees feel their actions influence success
  16. how to support employee empowerment to ensure success?
    • individual factors: possess required competencies, able to perform the work
    • job design factos: autonomy, task identity, task significance, job feedback
    • organizational factors: resources, learning orientation, trust

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