chapter1-5psychology201file.txt

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chapter1-5psychology201file.txt
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psych psychology 201 chapter 1 5 1-5
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Midterm Review
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  1. Applied Research
    Research that is designed to solve or examine specific, practical problems..
  2. Basic Research
    Research designed to obtain knowledge for its own sake.
  3. Behavioral Neuroscience
    A subfield of psych that examines brain processes and other physiological functions that underlie our behavior, sensory experiences, emotions, and thoughts.
  4. Behavioral Perspective
    A view that emphasizes how the environment and learning experiences shape and control behavior.
  5. Behavior Genetics
    The scientific study of the role of genetic inheritance in behavior.
  6. Behaviorism
    A school of psychology that emphasizes the effects of learning and environmental control on behavior and maintains that the proper subject matter of psychology is observable behavior.
  7. Biological Perspective
    A view that focuses on the role of biological factors in behavior, including biochemical and brain processes, as well as genetic and evolutionary factors.
  8. British Empiricism
    A 17th century school of philosophy championed by Locke, according to which all the contents of the mind are gained experimentally through the senses.
  9. Cognitive Behaviorism
    A behavioral approach that incorporates cognitive concepts, suggesting that the environment influences our thoughts and giving us information.
  10. Individualism
    A cultural orientation, characteristics of many western nations that favors the achievement of individual over group goals (self-identity is based primarily on one's attributes and achievements). *compare: collectivism
  11. Interaction
    The way in which one factor influences behavior depends on the presence of another factor.
  12. Mind-Body Dualism
    The philosophical position that the mind is a nonphysical entity that is not subject to physecal laws and therefor can not be reduced to physical processes; body and mind are separate entities. *compare: monoism
  13. Monoism
    The philosophical position that mental events are reducible to physical events in the brain, so that mind and body are one and the same.
  14. Natural Selection
    The evolutionary process through which characteristics that increase the likelihood of survival and reproduction are preserved in the gene pool and thereby become more common in a species over time.
  15. Neurotransmitters
    Chemical substances that are released from the atoms of one neuron, travel across the synapse space, and bind to specifically keyed receptors in another neuron, where they produce a chemical reaction that is either excitatory or inhibitory.
  16. Norms
    Rules that specify what behavior is acceptable and expected for members of a particular culture or group.
  17. Object Relations Theory
    The view that people form images or mental representations of themselves and other people as a result of early experiences w/caregivers.
  18. Positive Psychology Movement
    A view that emphasizes the study of human strengths, fulfillment, and optimal living.
  19. Cognitive Neuroscience
    An area of psychology that intersects the subfields of cognitive psych and physiological psych and examines brain processes that underlie mental activity.
  20. Cognitive Perspective
    A view that emphasizes humans as rational information processors and problem solvers, and focuses on the mental processes that influence behavior.
  21. Cognitive Pychology
    An area of psych that specializes in studying mental processes such as thinking, memory, planning, reasoning, attention, and perception.
  22. Collectivism
    A cultural orientation that emphasizes the achievement of group rather than individual goals and in which personal identity is largely defined by ties to the larger social group. *compare: individualism
  23. Cultural Psychology
    An area of psych, sometimes called cross-cultural psych that explores how culture is transmitted to its members and examines psychological similarities and differences that occur between people from diverse cultures.
  24. Culture
    The enduring values, beliefs, behaviors and traditions that are shared by a large group of people and passed from one generation to the next.
  25. Defense Techniques
    Unconscious processes that help us cope with anxiety and pain of traumatic experiences. They prevent the expression of anxiety-arousing impulses or allow them to appear in disguised forms. (walk a lap before a quiz)

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